Title: Manual Live Systems
Creator: Projeto Live Systems <debian-live@lists.debian.org>
Rights: Copyright: Copyright (C) 2006-2015 Live Systems Project
License: This program is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or (at your option) any later version.

This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License for more details.

You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with this program. If not, see http://www.gnu.org/licenses/.

The complete text of the GNU General Public License can be found in /usr/share/common-licenses/GPL-3 file.

Publisher: Projeto Live Systems <debian-live@lists.debian.org>
Date: 2015-05-01
Sourcefile: live-manual.ssm.sst
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Manual Live Systems 1 Sobre 2 Sobre esse manual 3 1. Sobre esse manual 4 This manual serves as a single access point to all documentation related to the Live Systems Project and in particular applies to the software produced by the project for the Debian 9.0 "stretch" release. An up-to-date version can always be found at <http://live-systems.org/> 5 While live-manual is primarily focused on helping you build a live system and not on end-user topics, an end user may find some useful information in these sections: The Basics covers downloading prebuilt images and preparing images to be booted from media or the network, either using the web builder or running live-build directly on your system. Customizing run time behaviours describes some options that may be specified at the boot prompt, such as selecting a keyboard layout and locale, and using persistence. 6 Alguns comandos mencionados no texto devem ser executados com privilégios de super-usuário, que podem ser obtidos tornando-se usuário root via su ou usando sudo. Para distinç&#227;o entre os comandos que talvez possam ser executados como usuário não privilegiado e aqueles que requerem privilégios de super usuário, os comandos são precididos por: $ ou # respectivamente. Esse simbolo não é parte do comando. 7 1.1 Para os impacientes 8 Embora acreditemos que tudo neste manual é importante para pelo menos alguns de nossos usuários, percebemos que tem muito material para cobertura e você pode querer experimentar o sucesso precoce utilizando o software antes de se aprofundar nos detalhes. Portanto, sugerimos a leitura na seguinte ordem. 9 First, read this chapter, About this manual, from the beginning and ending with the Terms section. Next, skip to the three tutorials at the front of the Examples section designed to teach you image building and customization basics. Read Using the examples first, followed by Tutorial 1: A default image, Tutorial 2: A web browser utility and finally Tutorial 3: A personalized image. By the end of these tutorials, you will have a taste of what can be done with live systems. 10 We encourage you to return to more in-depth study of the manual, perhaps next reading The basics, skimming or skipping Building a netboot image, and finishing by reading the Customization overview and the chapters that follow it. By this point, we hope you are thoroughly excited by what can be done with live systems and motivated to read the rest of the manual, cover-to-cover. 11 1.2 Terminologia 12 Live system: An operating system that can boot without installation to a hard drive. Live systems do not alter local operating system(s) or file(s) already installed on the computer hard drive unless instructed to do so. Live systems are typically booted from media such as CDs, DVDs or USB sticks. Some may also boot over the network (via netboot images, see Building a netboot image), and over the Internet (via the boot parameter fetch=URL, see Webbooting). 13 Live medium: As distinct from live system, the live medium refers to the CD, DVD or USB stick where the binary produced by live-build and used to boot the live system is written. More broadly, the term also refers to any place where this binary resides for the purposes of booting the live system, such as the location for the network boot files. 14 Live Systems Project: The project which maintains, among others, the live-boot, live-build, live-config, live-tools and live-manual packages. 15 Sistema Hospedeiro: O ambiente usado para criar o sistema live. 16 Sistema Destino: O ambiente usado para rodar o sistema live. 17 live-boot: Uma coleç&#227;o de scripts usados para inicializar sistemas live. 18 live-build: A collection of scripts used to build customized live systems. 19 live-config: Uma coleç&#227;o de scripts usados para configurar um sistema live durante o processo de boot. 20 live-tools: A collection of additional scripts used to perform useful tasks within a running live system. 21 live-manual: Esse documento é mantido em um pacote chamado live-manual. 22 Instalador Debian (d-i): O sistema oficial de instalaç&#227;o para a distribuiç&#227;o Debian. 23 Paramentros de inicializaç&#227;o: Parametros que podem ser inseridos no prompt do bootloader para influenciar o kernel ou o live-config. 24 chroot: O programa chroot, chroot(8), nos habilita a rodar simultâneamente diferentes instâncias do ambiente do GNU/Linux em um û nico sistema sem reinicializaç&#227;o. 25 Binary image: A file containing the live system, such as live-image-i386.hybrid.iso or live-image-i386.img. 26 Distribuiç&#227;o Destino: A distribuiç&#227;o em que o sistema live será baseado. Isso pode diferir da distribuiç&#227;o do seu sistema host. 27 stable/testing/unstable: The stable distribution, currently codenamed stretch, contains the latest officially released distribution of Debian. The testing distribution, temporarily codenamed buster, is the staging area for the next stable release. A major advantage of using this distribution is that it has more recent versions of software relative to the stable release. The unstable distribution, permanently codenamed sid, is where active development of Debian occurs. Generally, this distribution is run by developers and those who like to live on the edge. Throughout the manual, we tend to use codenames for the releases, such as buster or sid, as that is what is supported by the tools themselves. 28 1.3 Autores 29 Lista de autores (em ordem alfabética) 30 Ben Armstrong 31 Brendan Sleight 32 Carlos Zuferri 33 Chris Lamb 34 Daniel Baumann 35 Franklin Piat 36 Jonas Stein 37 Kai Hendry 38 Marco Amadori 39 Mathieu Geli 40 Matthias Kirschner 41 Richard Nelson 42 Trent W. Buck 43 1.4 Contribuindo com esse documento 44 This manual is intended as a community project and all proposals for improvements and contributions are extremely welcome. Please see the section Contributing to the project for detailed information on how to fetch the commit key and make good commits. 45 1.4.1 Applying changes 46 In order to make changes to the English manual you have to edit the right files in manual/en/ but prior to the submission of your contribution, please preview your work. To preview the live-manual, ensure the packages needed for building it are installed by executing: 47 48 # apt-get install make po4a ruby ruby-nokogiri sisu-complete
Você também pode construir o live-manual a partir do primeiro nível do diretório do seu Git checkout executando: 49 50 $ make build
Since it takes a while to build the manual in all supported languages, authors may find it convenient to use one of the fast proofing shortcuts when reviewing the new documentation they have added to the English manual. Using PROOF=1 builds live-manual in html format, but without the segmented html files, and using PROOF=2 builds live-manual in pdf format, but only the A4 and letter portraits. That is why using either of the PROOF= possibilities can save up a considerable amount of time, e.g: 51 52 $ make build PROOF=1
When proofing one of the translations it is possible to build only one language by executing, e.g: 53 54 $ make build LANGUAGES=de
Também é possível construir, por tipo de documento, por exemplo: 55 56 $ make build FORMATS=pdf
Ou a combinaç&#227;o dos dois, por exemplo: 57 58 $ make build LANGUAGES=de FORMATS=html
After revising your work and making sure that everything is fine, do not use make commit unless you are updating translations in the commit, and in that case, do not mix changes to the English manual and translations in the same commit, but use separate commits for each. See the Translation section for more details. 59 1.4.2 Traduç&#227;o 60 In order to translate live-manual, follow these steps depending on whether you are starting a translation from scratch or continue working on an already existing one: 61 Start a new translation from scratch 62 Translate the about_manual.ssi.pot, about_project.ssi.pot and index.html.in.pot files in manual/pot/ to your language with your favourite editor (such as poedit) and send the translated .po files to the mailing list to check their integrity. live-manual's integrity check not only ensures that the .po files are 100% translated but it also detects possible errors. 63 Once checked, to enable a new language in the autobuild it is enough to add the initial translated files to manual/po/${LANGUAGE}/ and run make commit. And then, edit manual/_sisu/home/index.html adding the name of the language and its name in English between brackets. 64 Continue with an already started translation 65 If your target language has already been added, you can randomly continue translating the remaining .po files in manual/po/${LANGUAGE}/ using your favourite editor (such as poedit) . 66 Do not forget that you need to run make commit to ensure that the translated manuals are updated from the .po files and then you can review your changes launching make build before git add ., git commit -m "Translating..." and git push. Remember that since make build can take a considerable amount of time, you can proofread languages individually as explained in Applying changes 67 After running make commit you will see some text scroll by. These are basically informative messages about the processing status and also some hints about what can be done in order to improve live-manual. Unless you see a fatal error, you usually can proceed and submit your contribution. 68 live-manual comes with two utilities that can greatly help translators to find untranslated and changed strings. The first one is "make translate". It launches an script that tells you in detail how many untranslated strings there are in each .po file. The second one, the "make fixfuzzy" target, only acts upon changed strings but it helps you to find and fix them one by one. 69 Keep in mind that even though these utilities might be really helpful to do translation work on the command line, the use of an specialized tool like poedit is the recommended way to do the task. It is also a good idea to read the Debian localization (l10n) documentation and, specifically to live-manual, the Guidelines for translators. 70 Observaç&#227;o: Você pode usar make clean para limpar a sua á rvore git antes de enviar. Este passo não é obrigatório graças ao gitignore., Mas é uma boa prática para evitar enviar arquivos involuntariamente. 71 About the Live Systems Project 72 2. About the Live Systems Project 73 2.1 Motivaç&#227;o 74 2.1.1 O que está errado com os atuais sistemas live 75 When Live Systems Project was initiated, there were already several Debian based live systems available and they are doing a great job. From the Debian perspective most of them have one or more of the following disadvantages: 76 Eles não são projetos Debian e, portanto, carecem de apoio de dentro do Debian. 77 Eles misturam diferentes distribuiç&#245;es, exemplo testing e unstable. 78 Eles suportam apenas i386. 79 Eles modificam o comportamento e/ou a aparência de pacotes retirando-os para economizar espaço. 80 Eles incluem pacotes de fora dos arquivos Debian. 81 Eles enviam kernels personalizados com correç&#245;es adicionais que não fazem parte do Debian. 82 Eles são grandes e lentos devido ao seu tamanho e, portanto, inadequados para questões de recuperaç&#227;o. 83 Eles não estão disponíveis em diferentes sabores, ou seja, CDs, DVDs, USB-stick e imagens netboot. 84 2.1.2 Por que criar seu proprio sistema live? 85 Debian é o Sistema Operacional Universal que tem um sistema live para mostrar e representar com precisão o sistema Debian com as principais vantagens, a seguir: 86 É um subprojeto do Debian. 87 Reflete o estado (atual) de uma distribuiç&#227;o. 88 Roda em tantas arquiteturas quanto possivel. 89 É composto apenas por pacotes do Debian inalterados. 90 Ele não contém pacotes que não estão no arquivo Debian. 91 Ele usa um kernel inalterado Debian sem correç&#245;es adicionais. 92 2.2 Filosofia 93 2.2.1 Apenas pacotes inalterados do Debian "main" 94 Nós só usaremos pacotes do repositorio Debian seç&#227;o "main". A seç&#227;o non-free não é parte do Debian e então não pode ser utilizada e, portanto, não pode ser usada para imagens de sistemas live oficiais. 95 Nós não vamos alterar qualquer pacote. Sempre que preciso mudar alguma coisa, vamos fazer isso em coordenaç&#227;o com o seu mantenedor do pacote no Debian. 96 Como uma exceç&#227;o, nossos próprios pacotes, como live-boot, live-build ou live-config podem ser usados temporariamente do nosso próprio repositório, por razões de desenvolvimento (por exemplo, para criar imagens instantanea de desenvolvimento ). Eles serão enviados para o Debian em uma base regular. 97 2.2.2 Nenhum pacote de configuraç&#227;o do sistema live 98 Nesta fase nós não enviaremos ou instalaremos exemplos ou configuraç&#245;es alternativas. Todos os pacotes são usados em sua configuraç&#227;o padrão, como eles estão atrás de uma instalaç&#227;o normal do Debian. 99 Sempre que precisamos de uma configuraç&#227;o padrão diferente, vamos fazer isso em coordenaç&#227;o com o seu mantenedor do pacote no Debian. 100 A system for configuring packages is provided using debconf allowing custom configured packages to be installed in your custom produced live system images, but for the prebuilt live images we choose to leave packages in their default configuration, unless absolutely necessary in order to work in the live environment. Wherever possible, we prefer to adapt packages within the Debian archive to work better in a live system versus making changes to the live toolchain or prebuilt image configurations. For more information, please see Customization overview. 101 2.3 Contato 102 Mailing list: The primary contact for the project is the mailing list at <https://lists.debian.org/debian-live/>. You can email the list directly by addressing your mail to <debian-live@lists.debian.org.> The list archives are available at <https://lists.debian.org/debian-live/>. 103 IRC: Diversos usuários e desenvolvedores estão presentes no canal #debian-live em irc.debian.org (OFTC). Quando fizer uma pergunta sobre IRC, por favor seja paciente para uma resposta. Se nenhuma resposta for dada, favor enviar um email para a lista. 104 BTS: O Debian Bug Tracking System = Sistema de acompanhamento de erros do Debian‚Ć°<https://www.debian.org/Bugs/> (BTS) contem detalhes de erros informados por usuários e desenvolvedores. Para cada erro é dado um numero, e é mantido ate que seja informado que foi resolvido. Para mais informaç&#245;es, por favor veja ‚ƆReportando Erros. 105 Usuario 106 Instalaç&#227;o 107 3. Instalaç&#227;o 108 3.1 Requisitos 109 Building live system images has very few system requirements: 110 Acesso superusuário (root) 111 Uma versão atualizada do live-build 112 Um shell compatível com POSIX, como bash or dash 113 debootstrap ou cdebootstrap 114 Linux 2.6.x ou mais recente 115 Observe que usar o Debian ou uma distribuiç&#227;o Debian derivada não é necessária - live-build será executado em quase qualquer distribuiç&#227;o com os requisitos acima. 116 3.2 Instalando live-build 117 Você pode instalar live-build em um nûmero de caminhos diferentes: 118 Do repositório Debian 119 Da fonte 120 Apartir de imagens 121 Se você está usando o Debian, O caminho recomendado é instalar via repositório Debian. 122 3.2.1 Do repositório Debian 123 Basta instalar live-build como qualquer outro pacote: 124 125 # apt-get install live-build
3.2.2 Da fonte 126 live-build foi desenvolvido usando o sistema de controle de versão Git. Em sistemas baseados em Debian, esta é fornecida pelo pacote git. Para verificar o código mais recente, execute: 127 128 $ git clone git://live-systems.org/git/live-build.git
Você pode construir e instalar seu próprio pacote Debian executando: 129 130 $ cd live-build
   $ dpkg-buildpackage -b -uc -us
   $ cd ..
Agora instale qualquer dos recém construídos arquivos .deb que você estava interessado, por exemplo, 131 132 # dpkg -i live-build_4.0-1_all.deb
Você também pode instalar live-build diretamente ao seu sistema executando: 133 134 # make install
e o desinstalar com: 135 136 # make uninstall
3.2.3 Dos 'instantaneos' 137 Se você não deseja construir ou instalar live-build a partir da fonte, você pode usar instantaneos. Estes são construídos automaticamente a partir da versão mais recente no Git e estão disponíveis no <http://live-systems.org/debian/>. 138 3.3 Instalando live-boot e live-config 139 Note: You do not need to install live-boot or live-config on your system to create customized live systems. However, doing so will do no harm and is useful for reference purposes. If you only want the documentation, you may now install the live-boot-doc and live-config-doc packages separately. 140 3.3.1 Do repositório Debian 141 Ambos live-boot e live-config estão disponíveis a partir do repositório Debian como Instalaç&#227;o do live-build. 142 3.3.2 Da fonte 143 Para usar a û ltima fonte de git, você pode seguir o processo abaixo. Certifique-se de que você está familiarizado com os termos mencionados em Termos. 144 _ * Consultar as fontes de live-boot e live-config 145 146 $ git clone git://live-systems.org/git/live-boot.git
   $ git clone git://live-systems.org/git/live-config.git
Consulte as páginas do man live-boot e live-config para obter detalhes sobre a personalizaç&#227;o, se essa é a sua razão para a construç&#227;o desses pacotes a partir da fonte. 147 Construir os arquivos live-boot e live-config .deb 148 You must build either on your target distribution or in a chroot containing your target platform: this means if your target is buster then you should build against buster. 149 Use a personal builder such as pbuilder or sbuild if you need to build live-boot for a target distribution that differs from your build system. For example, for buster live images, build live-boot in a buster chroot. If your target distribution happens to match your build system distribution, you may build directly on the build system using dpkg-buildpackage (provided by the dpkg-dev package): 150 151 $ cd live-boot
   $ dpkg-buildpackage -b -uc -us
   $ cd ../live-config
   $ dpkg-buildpackage -b -uc -us
Utilizaç&#227;o de aplicativos .deb gerados 152 As live-boot and live-config are installed by live-build system, installing the packages in the host system is not sufficient: you should treat the generated .deb files like any other custom packages. Since your purpose for building from source is likely to test new things over the short term before the official release, follow Installing modified or third-party packages to temporarily include the relevant files in your configuration. In particular, notice that both packages are divided into a generic part, a documentation part and one or more back-ends. Include the generic part, only one back-end matching your configuration, and optionally the documentation. Assuming you are building a live image in the current directory and have generated all .deb files for a single version of both packages in the directory above, these bash commands would copy all of the relevant packages including default back-ends: 153 154 $ cp ../live-boot{_,-initramfs-tools,-doc}*.deb &#160;config/packages.chroot/
   $ cp ../live-config{_,-sysvinit,-doc}*.deb &#160;config/packages.chroot/
3.3.3 Dos 'instantaneos' 155 You can let live-build automatically use the latest snapshots of live-boot and live-config by configuring the package repository on live-systems.org as a third-party repository in your live-build configuration directory. 156 O básico 157 4. O básico 158 This chapter contains a brief overview of the build process and instructions for using the three most commonly used image types. The most versatile image type, iso-hybrid, may be used on a virtual machine, optical medium or USB portable storage device. In certain special cases, as explained later, the hdd type may be more suitable. The chapter includes detailed instructions for building and using a netboot type image, which is a bit more involved due to the setup required on the server. This is an slightly advanced topic for anyone who is not already familiar with netbooting, but it is included here because once the setup is done, it is a very convenient way to test and deploy images for booting on the local network without the hassle of dealing with image media. 159 The section finishes with a quick introduction to webbooting which is, perhaps, the easiest way of using different images for different purposes, switching from one to the other as needed using the internet as a means. 160 Throughout the chapter, we will often refer to the default filenames produced by live-build. If you are downloading a prebuilt image instead, the actual filenames may vary. 161 4.1 O que é um sistema live? 162 Um sistema live normalmente significa um sistema operacional inicializado em um computador a partir de uma mídia removível, como um CD-ROM ou dispositivo USB, ou de uma rede, pronto a usar, sem qualquer tipo de instalaç&#227;o na unidade de costume (s), com a auto-configuraç&#227;o feita em tempo de execuç&#227;o (veja Termos). 163 With live systems, it's an operating system, built for one of the supported architectures (currently amd64 and i386). It is made from the following parts: 164 Imagem do kernel do Linux , normalmente chamada vmlinuz* 165 Initial RAM disk image (initrd) - Imagem do disco RAM inicial: um disco de RAM configurado para a inicializaç&#227;o do Linux, que contém módulos que podem ser necessários para montar a imagem do sistema e alguns scripts para fazê-lo. 166 System image: The operating system's filesystem image. Usually, a SquashFS compressed filesystem is used to minimize the live system image size. Note that it is read-only. So, during boot the live system will use a RAM disk and 'union' mechanism to enable writing files within the running system. However, all modifications will be lost upon shutdown unless optional persistence is used (see Persistence). 167 Bootloader: A small piece of code crafted to boot from the chosen medium, possibly presenting a prompt or menu to allow selection of options/configuration. It loads the Linux kernel and its initrd to run with an associated system filesystem. Different solutions can be used, depending on the target medium and format of the filesystem containing the previously mentioned components: isolinux to boot from a CD or DVD in ISO9660 format, syslinux for HDD or USB drive booting from a VFAT partition, extlinux for ext2/3/4 and btrfs partitions, pxelinux for PXE netboot, GRUB for ext2/3/4 partitions, etc. 168 You can use live-build to build the system image from your specifications, set up a Linux kernel, its initrd, and a bootloader to run them, all in one medium-dependant format (ISO9660 image, disk image, etc.). 169 4.2 Downloading prebuilt images 170 While the focus of this manual is developing and building your own live images, you may simply wish to try one of our prebuilt images, either as an introduction to their use or instead of building your own. These images are built using our live-images git repository and official stable releases are published at <https://www.debian.org/CD/live/>. In addition, older and upcoming releases, and unofficial images containing non-free firmware and drivers are available at <http://live-systems.org/cdimage/release/>. 171 4.3 Using the web live image builder 172 As a service to the community, we run a web-based live image builder service at <http://live-systems.org/build/>. This site is maintained on a best effort basis. That is, although we strive to keep it up-to-date and operational at all times, and do issue notices for significant operational outages, we cannot guarantee 100% availability or fast image building, and the service may occasionally have issues that take some time to resolve. If you have problems or questions about the service, please contact us, providing us with the link to your build. 173 4.3.1 Web builder usage and caveats 174 The web interface currently makes no provision to prevent the use of invalid combinations of options, and in particular, where changing an option would normally (i.e. using live-build directly) change defaults of other options listed in the web form, the web builder does not change these defaults. Most notably, if you change --architectures from the default i386 to amd64, you must change the corresponding option --linux-flavours from the default 586 to amd64. See the lb_config man page for the version of live-build installed on the web builder for more details. The version number of live-build is listed at the bottom of the web builder page. 175 The time estimate given by the web builder is a crude estimate only and may not reflect how long your build actually takes. Nor is the estimate updated once it is displayed. Please be patient. Do not refresh the page you land on after submitting the build, as this will resubmit a new build with the same parameters. You should contact us if you don't receive notification of your build only once you are certain you've waited long enough and verified the notification e-mail did not get caught by your own e-mail spam filter. 176 The web builder is limited in the kinds of images it can build. This keeps it simple and efficient to use and maintain. If you would like to make customizations that are not provided for by the web interface, the rest of this manual explains how to build your own images using live-build. 177 4.4 Primeiros passos: construindo uma imagem ISO híbrida 178 Regardless of the image type, you will need to perform the same basic steps to build an image each time. As a first example, create a build directory, change to that directory and then execute the following sequence of live-build commands to create a basic ISO hybrid image containing a default live system without X.org. It is suitable for burning to CD or DVD media, and also to copy onto a USB stick. 179 The name of the working directory is absolutely up to you, but if you take a look at the examples used throughout live-manual, it is a good idea to use a name that helps you identify the image you are working with in each directory, especially if you are working or experimenting with different image types. In this case you are going to build a default system so let's call it, for example, live-default. 180 181 $ mkdir live-default &&amp; cd live-default
Then, run the lb config command. This will create a "config/" hierarchy in the current directory for use by other commands: 182 183 $ lb config
No parameters are passed to these commands, so defaults for all of their various options will be used. See The lb config command for more details. 184 Agora que existe a hierarquia "config/", construir a imagem com o comando lb build: 185 186 # lb build
This process can take a while, depending on the speed of your computer and your network connection. When it is complete, there should be a live-image-i386.hybrid.iso image file, ready to use, in the current directory. 187 Note: If you are building on an amd64 system the name of the resulting image will be live-image-amd64.hybrid.iso. Keep in mind this naming convention throughout the manual. 188 4.5 Usando uma imagem live ISO hibrida 189 After either building or downloading an ISO hybrid image, which can be obtained at <https://www.debian.org/CD/live/>, the usual next step is to prepare your medium for booting, either CD-R(W) or DVD-R(W) optical media or a USB stick. 190 4.5.1 Queimar uma imagem ISO em um meio físico 191 Burning an ISO image is easy. Just install xorriso and use it from the command-line to burn the image. For instance: 192 193 # apt-get install xorriso
   $ xorriso -as cdrecord -v dev=/dev/sr0 blank=as_needed live-image-i386.hybrid.iso
4.5.2 Copiar uma imagem ISO híbrida para um dispositivo USB 194 ISO images prepared with xorriso, can be simply copied to a USB stick with the cp program or an equivalent. Plug in a USB stick with a size large enough for your image file and determine which device it is, which we hereafter refer to as ${USBSTICK}. This is the device file of your key, such as /dev/sdb, not a partition, such as /dev/sdb1! You can find the right device name by looking in dmesg's output after plugging in the stick, or better yet, ls -l /dev/disk/by-id. 195 Once you are certain you have the correct device name, use the cp command to copy the image to the stick. This will definitely overwrite any previous contents on your stick! 196 197 $ cp live-image-i386.hybrid.iso ${USBSTICK}
   $ sync
Note: The sync command is useful to ensure that all the data, which is stored in memory by the kernel while copying the image, is written to the USB stick. 198 4.5.3 Using the space left on a USB stick 199 After copying the live-image-i386.hybrid.iso to a USB stick, the first partition on the device will be filled up by the live system. To use the remaining free space, use a partitioning tool such as gparted or parted to create a new partition on the stick. 200 201 # gparted ${USBSTICK}
After the partition is created, where ${PARTITION} is the name of the partition, such as /dev/sdb2, you have to create a filesystem on it. One possible choice would be ext4. 202 203 # mkfs.ext4 ${PARTITION}
Note: If you want to use the extra space with Windows, apparently that OS cannot normally access any partitions but the first. Some solutions to this problem have been discussed on our mailing list, but it seems there are no easy answers. 204 Remember: Every time you install a new live-image-i386.hybrid.iso on the stick, all data on the stick will be lost because the partition table is overwritten by the contents of the image, so back up your extra partition first to restore again after updating the live image. 205 4.5.4 Booting the live medium 206 The first time you boot your live medium, whether CD, DVD, USB key, or PXE boot, some setup in your computer's BIOS may be needed first. Since BIOSes vary greatly in features and key bindings, we cannot get into the topic in depth here. Some BIOSes provide a key to bring up a menu of boot devices at boot time, which is the easiest way if it is available on your system. Otherwise, you need to enter the BIOS configuration menu and change the boot order to place the boot device for the live system before your normal boot device. 207 Once you've booted the medium, you are presented with a boot menu. If you just press enter here, the system will boot using the default entry, Live and default options. For more information about boot options, see the "help" entry in the menu and also the live-boot and live-config man pages found within the live system. 208 Assuming you've selected Live and booted a default desktop live image, after the boot messages scroll by, you should be automatically logged into the user account and see a desktop, ready to use. If you have booted a console-only image, such as a standard flavour prebuilt image, you should be automatically logged in on the console to the user account and see a shell prompt, ready to use. 209 4.6 Usando uma máquina virtual para testar 210 It can be a great time-saver for the development of live images to run them in a virtual machine (VM). This is not without its caveats: 211 Running a VM requires enough RAM for both the guest OS and the host and a CPU with hardware support for virtualization is recommended. 212 There are some inherent limitations to running on a VM, e.g. poor video performance, limited choice of emulated hardware. 213 When developing for specific hardware, there is no substitute for running on the hardware itself. 214 Occasionally there are bugs that relate only to running in a VM. When in doubt, test your image directly on the hardware. 215 Provided you can work within these constraints, survey the available VM software and choose one that is suitable for your needs. 216 4.6.1 Testing an ISO image with QEMU 217 The most versatile VM in Debian is QEMU. If your processor has hardware support for virtualization, use the qemu-kvm package; the qemu-kvm package description briefly lists the requirements. 218 First, install qemu-kvm if your processor supports it. If not, install qemu, in which case the program name is qemu instead of kvm in the following examples. The qemu-utils package is also valuable for creating virtual disk images with qemu-img. 219 220 # apt-get install qemu-kvm qemu-utils
Booting an ISO image is simple: 221 222 $ kvm -cdrom live-image-i386.hybrid.iso
See the man pages for more details. 223 4.6.2 Testing an ISO image with VirtualBox 224 In order to test the ISO with virtualbox: 225 226 # apt-get install virtualbox virtualbox-qt virtualbox-dkms
   $ virtualbox
Create a new virtual machine, change the storage settings to use live-image-i386.hybrid.iso as the CD/DVD device, and start the machine. 227 Note: For live systems containing X.org that you want to test with virtualbox, you may wish to include the VirtualBox X.org driver package, virtualbox-guest-dkms and virtualbox-guest-x11, in your live-build configuration. Otherwise, the resolution is limited to 800x600. 228 229 $ echo "virtualbox-guest-dkms virtualbox-guest-x11" > > config/package-lists/my.list.chroot
In order to make the dkms package work, also the kernel headers for the kernel flavour used in your image need to be installed. Instead of manually listing the correct linux-headers package in above created package list, the selection of the right package can be done automatically by live-build. 230 231  &#160;$ lb config --linux-packages "linux-image linux-headers"
4.7 Building and using an HDD image 232 Building an HDD image is similar to an ISO hybrid one in all respects except you specify -b hdd and the resulting filename is live-image-i386.img which cannot be burnt to optical media. It is suitable for booting from USB sticks, USB hard drives, and various other portable storage devices. Normally, an ISO hybrid image can be used for this purpose instead, but if you have a BIOS which does not handle hybrid images properly, you need an HDD image. 233 Note: if you created an ISO hybrid image with the previous example, you will need to clean up your working directory with the lb clean command (see The lb clean command): 234 235 # lb clean --binary
Run the lb config command as before, except this time specifying the HDD image type: 236 237 $ lb config -b hdd
Now build the image with the lb build command: 238 239 # lb build
When the build finishes, a live-image-i386.img file should be present in the current directory. 240 The generated binary image contains a VFAT partition and the syslinux bootloader, ready to be directly written on a USB device. Once again, using an HDD image is just like using an ISO hybrid one on USB. Follow the instructions in Using an ISO hybrid live image, except use the filename live-image-i386.img instead of live-image-i386.hybrid.iso. 241 Likewise, to test an HDD image with Qemu, install qemu as described above in Testing an ISO image with QEMU. Then run kvm or qemu, depending on which version your host system needs, specifying live-image-i386.img as the first hard drive. 242 243 $ kvm -hda live-image-i386.img
4.8 Building a netboot image 244 The following sequence of commands will create a basic netboot image containing a default live system without X.org. It is suitable for booting over the network. 245 Note: if you performed any previous examples, you will need to clean up your working directory with the lb clean command: 246 247 # lb clean
In this specific case, a lb clean --binary would not be enough to clean up the necessary stages. The cause for this is that in netboot setups, a different initramfs configuration needs to be used which live-build performs automatically when building netboot images. Since the initramfs creation belongs to the chroot stage, switching to netboot in an existing build directory means to rebuild the chroot stage too. Therefore, lb clean (which will remove the chroot stage, too) needs to be used. 248 Run the lb config command as follows to configure your image for netbooting: 249 250 $ lb config -b netboot --net-root-path "/srv/debian-live" --net-root-server "192.168.0.2"
In contrast with the ISO and HDD images, netbooting does not, itself, serve the filesystem image to the client, so the files must be served via NFS. Different network filesystems can be chosen through lb config. The --net-root-path and --net-root-server options specify the location and server, respectively, of the NFS server where the filesystem image will be located at boot time. Make sure these are set to suitable values for your network and server. 251 Now build the image with the lb build command: 252 253 # lb build
In a network boot, the client runs a small piece of software which usually resides on the EPROM of the Ethernet card. This program sends a DHCP request to get an IP address and information about what to do next. Typically, the next step is getting a higher level bootloader via the TFTP protocol. That could be pxelinux, GRUB, or even boot directly to an operating system like Linux. 254 For example, if you unpack the generated live-image-i386.netboot.tar archive in the /srv/debian-live directory, you'll find the filesystem image in live/filesystem.squashfs and the kernel, initrd and pxelinux bootloader in tftpboot/. 255 We must now configure three services on the server to enable netbooting: the DHCP server, the TFTP server and the NFS server. 256 4.8.1 Servidor DHCP 257 We must configure our network's DHCP server to be sure to give an IP address to the netbooting client system, and to advertise the location of the PXE bootloader. 258 Here is an example for inspiration, written for the ISC DHCP server isc-dhcp-server in the /etc/dhcp/dhcpd.conf configuration file: 259 260 # /etc/dhcp/dhcpd.conf - configuration file for isc-dhcp-server
&lt;br />   ddns-update-style none;&lt;br />&lt;br />   option domain-name "example.org";&lt;br />   option domain-name-servers ns1.example.org, ns2.example.org;&lt;br />&lt;br />   default-lease-time 600;&lt;br />   max-lease-time 7200;&lt;br />&lt;br />   log-facility local7;&lt;br />&lt;br />   subnet 192.168.0.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 {
    &#160;&#160;range 192.168.0.1 192.168.0.254;&lt;br />    &#160;&#160;filename "pxelinux.0";&lt;br />    &#160;&#160;next-server 192.168.0.2;&lt;br />    &#160;&#160;option subnet-mask 255.255.255.0;&lt;br />    &#160;&#160;option broadcast-address 192.168.0.255;&lt;br />    &#160;&#160;option routers 192.168.0.1;&lt;br />   }
4.8.2 Servidor TFTP 261 This serves the kernel and initial ramdisk to the system at run time. 262 You should install the tftpd-hpa package. It can serve all files contained inside a root directory, usually /srv/tftp. To let it serve files inside /srv/debian-live/tftpboot, run as root the following command: 263 264 # dpkg-reconfigure -plow tftpd-hpa
and fill in the new tftp server directory when being asked about it. 265 4.8.3 Servidor NFS 266 Once the guest computer has downloaded and booted a Linux kernel and loaded its initrd, it will try to mount the Live filesystem image through a NFS server. 267 You need to install the nfs-kernel-server package. 268 Then, make the filesystem image available through NFS by adding a line like the following to /etc/exports: 269 270 /srv/debian-live *(ro,async,no_root_squash,no_subtree_check)
and tell the NFS server about this new export with the following command: 271 272 # exportfs -rv
Setting up these three services can be a little tricky. You might need some patience to get all of them working together. For more information, see the syslinux wiki at <http://www.syslinux.org/wiki/index.php/PXELINUX> or the Debian Installer Manual's TFTP Net Booting section at <http://d-i.alioth.debian.org/manual/en.i386/ch04s05.html>. They might help, as their processes are very similar. 273 4.8.4 Netboot testing HowTo 274 Netboot image creation is made easy with live-build, but testing the images on physical machines can be really time consuming. 275 To make our life easier, we can use virtualization. 276 4.8.5 Qemu 277 Install qemu, bridge-utils, sudo. 278 Edit /etc/qemu-ifup: 279 280 #!/bin/sh
   sudo -p "Senha para $0:" /sbin/ifconfig $1 172.20.0.1
   echo "Executando /etc/qemu-ifup"
   echo "Levando o $1 para o modo bridged..."
   sudo /sbin/ifconfig $1 0.0.0.0 promisc up
   echo "Adicionando $1 to br0..."
   sudo /usr/sbin/brctl addif br0 $1
   sleep 2
Get, or build a grub-floppy-netboot. 281 Launch qemu with "-net nic,vlan=0 -net tap,vlan=0,ifname=tun0" 282 4.9 Webbooting 283 Webbooting is a convenient way of retrieving and booting live systems using the internet as a means. The requirements for webbooting are very few. On the one hand, you need a medium with a bootloader, an initial ramdisk and a kernel. On the other hand, a web server to store the squashfs files which contain the filesystem. 284 4.9.1 Getting the webboot files 285 As usual, you can build the images yourself or use the prebuilt files, which are available on the project's homepage at <http://live-systems.org/>. Using prebuilt images would be handy for doing initial testing until one can fine tune their own needs. If you have built a live image you will find the files needed for webbooting in the build directory under binary/live/. The files are called vmlinuz, initrd.img and filesystem.squashfs. 286 It is also possible to extract those files from an already existing iso image. In order to achieve that, loopback mount the image as follows: 287 288 # mount -o loop image.iso /mnt
The files are to be found under the live/ directory. In this specific case, it would be /mnt/live/. This method has the disadvantage that you need to be root to be able to mount the image. However, it has the advantage that it is easily scriptable and thus, easily automatized. 289 But undoubtedly, the easiest way of extracting the files from an iso image and uploading it to the web server at the same time, is using the midnight commander or mc. If you have the genisoimage package installed, the two-pane file manager allows you to browse the contents of an iso file in one pane and upload the files via ftp in the other pane. Even though this method requires manual work, it does not require root privileges. 290 4.9.2 Booting webboot images 291 While some users will prefer virtualization to test webbooting, we refer to real hardware here to match the following possible use case which should only be considered as an example. 292 In order to boot a webboot image it is enough to have the components mentioned above, i.e. vmlinuz and initrd.img in a usb stick inside a directory named live/ and install syslinux as bootloader. Then boot from the usb stick and type fetch=URL/PATH/TO/FILE at the boot options. live-boot will retrieve the squashfs file and store it into ram. This way, it is possible to use the downloaded compressed filesystem as a regular live system. For example: 293 294 append boot=live components fetch=http://192.168.2.50/images/webboot/filesystem.squashfs
Use case: You have a web server in which you have stored two squashfs files, one which contains a full desktop, like for example gnome, and a standard one. If you need a graphical environment for one machine, you can plug your usb stick in and webboot the gnome image. If you need one of the tools included in the second type of image, perhaps for another machine, you can webboot the standard one. 295 Overview of tools 296 5. Overview of tools 297 This chapter contains an overview of the three main tools used in building live systems: live-build, live-boot and live-config. 298 5.1 The live-build package 299 live-build is a collection of scripts to build live systems. These scripts are also referred to as "commands". 300 The idea behind live-build is to be a framework that uses a configuration directory to completely automate and customize all aspects of building a Live image. 301 Many concepts are similar to those used to build Debian packages with debhelper: 302 The scripts have a central location for configuring their operation. In debhelper, this is the debian/ subdirectory of a package tree. For example, dh_install will look, among others, for a file called debian/install to determine which files should exist in a particular binary package. In much the same way, live-build stores its configuration entirely under a config/ subdirectory. 303 The scripts are independent - that is to say, it is always safe to run each command. 304 Unlike debhelper, live-build provides the tools to generate a skeleton configuration directory. This could be considered to be similar to tools such as dh-make. For more information about these tools, read on, since the remainder of this section discuses the four most important commands. Note that the preceding lb is a generic wrapper for live-build commands. 305 lb config: Responsible for initializing a Live system configuration directory. See The lb config command for more information. 306 lb build: Responsible for starting a Live system build. See The lb build command for more information. 307 lb clean: Responsible for removing parts of a Live system build. See The lb clean command for more information. 308 5.1.1 The lb config command 309 As discussed in live-build, the scripts that make up live-build read their configuration with the source command from a single directory named config/. As constructing this directory by hand would be time-consuming and error-prone, the lb config command can be used to create the initial skeleton configuration tree. 310 Issuing lb config without any arguments creates the config/ subdirectory which is populated with some default settings in configuration files, and two skeleton trees named auto/ and local/. 311 312 $ lb config
   [2015-01-06 19:25:58] lb config
   P: Creating config tree for a debian/stretch/i386 system
   P: Symlinking hooks...
Using lb config without any arguments would be suitable for users who need a very basic image, or who intend to provide a more complete configuration via auto/config later (see Managing a configuration for details). 313 Normally, you will want to specify some options. For example, to specify which package manager to use while building the image: 314 315 $ lb config --apt aptitude
It is possible to specify many options, such as: 316 317 $ lb config --binary-images netboot --bootappend-live "boot=live components hostname=live-host username=live-user" ...
A full list of options is available in the lb_config man page. 318 5.1.2 The lb build command 319 The lb build command reads in your configuration from the config/ directory. It then runs the lower level commands needed to build your Live system. 320 5.1.3 The lb clean command 321 It is the job of the lb clean command to remove various parts of a build so subsequent builds can start from a clean state. By default, chroot, binary and source stages are cleaned, but the cache is left intact. Also, individual stages can be cleaned. For example, if you have made changes that only affect the binary stage, use lb clean --binary prior to building a new binary. If your changes invalidate the bootstrap and/or package caches, e.g. changes to --mode, --architecture, or --bootstrap, you must use lb clean --purge. See the lb_clean man page for a full list of options. 322 5.2 The live-boot package 323 live-boot is a collection of scripts providing hooks for the initramfs-tools, used to generate an initramfs capable of booting live systems, such as those created by live-build. This includes the live system ISOs, netboot tarballs, and USB stick images. 324 At boot time it will look for read-only media containing a /live/ directory where a root filesystem (often a compressed filesystem image like squashfs) is stored. If found, it will create a writable environment, using aufs, for Debian like systems to boot from. 325 More information on initial ramfs in Debian can be found in the Debian Linux Kernel Handbook at <http://kernel-handbook.alioth.debian.org/> in the chapter on initramfs. 326 5.3 The live-config package 327 live-config consists of the scripts that run at boot time after live-boot to configure the live system automatically. It handles such tasks as setting the hostname, locales and timezone, creating the live user, inhibiting cron jobs and performing autologin of the live user. 328 Managing a configuration 329 6. Managing a configuration 330 This chapter explains how to manage a live configuration from initial creation, through successive revisions and successive releases of both the live-build software and the live image itself. 331 6.1 Dealing with configuration changes 332 Live configurations rarely are perfect on the first try. It may be fine to pass lb config options from the command-line to perform a single build, but it is more typical to revise those options and build again until you are satisfied. To support these changes, you will need auto scripts which ensure your configuration is kept in a consistent state. 333 6.1.1 Why use auto scripts? What do they do? 334 The lb config command stores the options you pass to it in config/* files along with many other options set to default values. If you run lb config again, it will not reset any option that was defaulted based on your initial options. So, for example, if you run lb config again with a new value for --binary-images, any dependent options that were defaulted for the old image type may no longer work with the new ones. Nor are these files intended to be read or edited. They store values for over a hundred options, so nobody, let alone yourself, will be able to see in these which options you actually specified. And finally, if you run lb config, then upgrade live-build and it happens to rename an option, config/* would still contain variables named after the old option that are no longer valid. 335 For all these reasons, auto/* scripts will make your life easier. They are simple wrappers to the lb config, lb build and lb clean commands that are designed to help you manage your configuration. The auto/config script stores your lb config command with all desired options, the auto/clean script removes the files containing configuration variable values, and the auto/build script keeps a build.log of each build. Each of these scripts is run automatically every time you run the corresponding lb command. By using these scripts, your configuration is easier to read and is kept internally consistent from one revision to the next. Also, it will be much easier for you identify and fix options which need to change when you upgrade live-build after reading the updated documentation. 336 6.1.2 Use example auto scripts 337 For your convenience, live-build comes with example auto shell scripts to copy and edit. Start a new, default configuration, then copy the examples into it: 338 339 $ mkdir mylive &&amp; cd mylive &&amp; lb config
   $ mkdir auto
   $ cp /usr/share/doc/live-build/examples/auto/* auto/
Edit auto/config, adding any options as you see fit. For instance: 340 341 #!/bin/sh
   lb config noauto \
    &#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;--architectures i386 \
    &#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;--linux-flavours 686-pae \
    &#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;--binary-images hdd \
    &#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;--mirror-bootstrap http://ftp.ch.debian.org/debian/ \
    &#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;--mirror-binary http://ftp.ch.debian.org/debian/ \
    &#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;"${@}"
Now, each time you use lb config, auto/config will reset the configuration based on these options. When you want to make changes to them, edit the options in this file instead of passing them to lb config. When you use lb clean, auto/clean will clean up the config/* files along with any other build products. And finally, when you use lb build, a log of the build will be written by auto/build in build.log. 342 Note: A special noauto parameter is used here to suppress another call to auto/config, thereby preventing infinite recursion. Make sure you don't accidentally remove it when making edits. Also, take care to ensure when you split the lb config command across multiple lines for readability, as shown in the example above, that you don't forget the backslash (\) at the end of each line that continues to the next. 343 6.2 Clone a configuration published via Git 344 Use the lb config --config option to clone a Git repository that contains a live system configuration. If you would like to base your configuration on one maintained by the Live Systems Project, look at <http://live-systems.org/gitweb/> for the repository named live-images in the category Packages. This repository contains the configurations for the live systems prebuilt images. 345 For example, to build a standard image, use the live-images repository as follows: 346 347 $ mkdir live-images &&amp; cd live-images
   $ lb config --config git://live-systems.org/git/live-images.git
   $ cd images/standard
Edit auto/config and any other things you need in the config tree to suit your needs. For example, the unofficial non-free prebuilt images are made by simply adding --archive-areas "main contrib non-free". 348 You may optionally define a shortcut in your Git configuration by adding the following to your ${HOME}/.gitconfig: 349 350 [url "git://live-systems.org/git/"]
    &#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;insteadOf = lso:
This enables you to use lso: anywhere you need to specify the address of a live-systems.org git repository. If you also drop the optional .git suffix, starting a new image using this configuration is as easy as: 351 352 $ lb config --config lso:live-images
Cloning the entire live-images repository pulls the configurations used for several images. If you feel like building a different image after you have finished with the first one, change to another directory and again and optionally, make any changes to suit your needs. 353 In any case, remember that every time you will have to build the image as superuser: lb build 354 Personalizando conteûdo 355 7. Visão geral sobre personalizaç&#227;o 356 This chapter gives an overview of the various ways in which you may customize a live system. 357 7.1 Configuraç&#227;o de tempo de construç&#227;o X tempo de inicializaç&#227;o 358 As opç&#245;es de configuraç&#227;o do sistema Live são divididas em opç&#245;es de tempo de compilaç&#227;o que são as opç&#245;es aplicadas em tempo de compilaç&#227;o e opç&#245;es de tempo de inicializaç&#227;o que são aplicadas em tempo de inicializaç&#227;o. Opç&#245;es de inicializaç&#227;o são divididas naquelas que ocorrem em início do inicializaç&#227;o, aplicadas pelo pacote live-boot e aquelas que acontecem no final da inicializaç&#227;o, aplicadas pelo live-config. Qualquer opç&#227;o de inicializaç&#227;o pode ser modificada pelo usuário, especificando a no prompt de inicializaç&#227;o. A imagem também pode ser construída com os parâmetros de inicializaç&#227;o padrão para que os usuários possam normalmente apenas inicializar diretamente pelo sistema live, sem especificar quaisquer opç&#245;es quando todos os padrões são adequados. Em particular, o argumento para lb --bootappend-live consiste de quaisquer opç&#245;es padrão de kernel de linha de comando para o sistema live, tais como persistência, layouts de teclado, ou fuso horário. Veja Personalizando local e linguagem, por exemplo. 359 Build-time configuration options are described in the lb config man page. Boot-time options are described in the man pages for live-boot and live-config. Although the live-boot and live-config packages are installed within the live system you are building, it is recommended that you also install them on your build system for easy reference when you are working on your configuration. It is safe to do so, as none of the scripts contained within them are executed unless the system is configured as a live system. 360 7.2 Etapas da construç&#227;o 361 The build process is divided into stages, with various customizations applied in sequence in each. The first stage to run is the bootstrap stage. This is the initial phase of populating the chroot directory with packages to make a barebones Debian system. This is followed by the chroot stage, which completes the construction of chroot directory, populating it with all of the packages listed in the configuration, along with any other materials. Most customization of content occurs in this stage. The final stage of preparing the live image is the binary stage, which builds a bootable image, using the contents of the chroot directory to construct the root filesystem for the Live system, and including the installer and any other additional material on the target medium outside of the Live system's filesystem. After the live image is built, if enabled, the source tarball is built in the source stage. 362 Within each of these stages, there is a particular sequence in which commands are applied. These are arranged in such a way as to ensure customizations can be layered in a reasonable fashion. For example, within the chroot stage, preseeds are applied before any packages are installed, packages are installed before any locally included files are copied, and hooks are run later, after all of the materials are in place. 363 7.3 Complementar lb config com arquivos 364 Although lb config creates a skeletal configuration in the config/ directory, to accomplish your goals, you may need to provide additional files in subdirectories of config/. Depending on where the files are stored in the configuration, they may be copied into the live system's filesystem or into the binary image filesystem, or may provide build-time configurations of the system that would be cumbersome to pass as command-line options. You may include things such as custom lists of packages, custom artwork, or hook scripts to run either at build time or at boot time, boosting the already considerable flexibility of debian-live with code of your own. 365 7.4 Tarefas de personalizaç&#227;o 366 Os capítulos seguintes são organizados pelos tipos de personalizaç&#227;o de tarefas que os usuários normalmente executam: Personalizar a instalaç&#227;o de pacote, Personalizar conteûdos, e Personalizar localizade e linguagem cobrem apenas algumas das coisas que você pode querer fazer. 367 Customizing package installation 368 8. Customizing package installation 369 Perhaps the most basic customization of a live system is the selection of packages to be included in the image. This chapter guides you through the various build-time options to customize live-build's installation of packages. The broadest choices influencing which packages are available to install in the image are the distribution and archive areas. To ensure decent download speeds, you should choose a nearby distribution mirror. You can also add your own repositories for backports, experimental or custom packages, or include packages directly as files. You can define lists of packages, including metapackages which will install many related packages at once, such as packages for a particular desktop or language. Finally, a number of options give some control over apt, or if you prefer, aptitude, at build time when packages are installed. You may find these handy if you use a proxy, want to disable installation of recommended packages to save space, or need to control which versions of packages are installed via APT pinning, to name a few possibilities. 370 8.1 Package sources 371 8.1.1 Distribution, archive areas and mode 372 The distribution you choose has the broadest impact on which packages are available to include in your live image. Specify the codename, which defaults to buster for the buster version of live-build. Any current distribution carried in the archive may be specified by its codename here. (See Terms for more details.) The --distribution option not only influences the source of packages within the archive, but also instructs live-build to behave as needed to build each supported distribution. For example, to build against the unstable release, sid, specify: 373 374 $ lb config --distribution sid
Within the distribution archive, archive areas are major divisions of the archive. In Debian, these are main, contrib and non-free. Only main contains software that is part of the Debian distribution, hence that is the default. One or more values may be specified, e.g. 375 376 $ lb config --archive-areas "main contrib non-free"
Experimental support is available for some Debian derivatives through a --mode option. By default, this option is set to debian only if you are building on a Debian or on an unknown system. If lb config is invoked on any of the supported derivatives, it will default to create an image of that derivative. If lb config is run in e.g. ubuntu mode, the distribution names and archive areas for the specified derivative are supported instead of the ones for Debian. The mode also modifies live-build behaviour to suit the derivatives. 377 Note: The projects for whom these modes were added are primarily responsible for supporting users of these options. The Live Systems Project, in turn, provides development support on a best-effort basis only, based on feedback from the derivative projects as we do not develop or support these derivatives ourselves. 378 8.1.2 Distribution mirrors 379 The Debian archive is replicated across a large network of mirrors around the world so that people in each region can choose a nearby mirror for best download speed. Each of the --mirror-* options governs which distribution mirror is used at various stages of the build. Recall from Stages of the build that the bootstrap stage is when the chroot is initially populated by debootstrap with a minimal system, and the chroot stage is when the chroot used to construct the live system's filesystem is built. Thus, the corresponding mirror switches are used for those stages, and later, in the binary stage, the --mirror-binary and --mirror-binary-security values are used, superseding any mirrors used in an earlier stage. 380 8.1.3 Distribution mirrors used at build time 381 To set the distribution mirrors used at build time to point at a local mirror, it is sufficient to set --mirror-bootstrap and --mirror-chroot-security as follows. 382 383 $ lb config --mirror-bootstrap http://localhost/debian/ \
    &#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;--mirror-chroot-security http://localhost/debian-security/
The chroot mirror, specified by --mirror-chroot, defaults to the --mirror-bootstrap value. 384 8.1.4 Distribution mirrors used at run time 385 The --mirror-binary* options govern the distribution mirrors placed in the binary image. These may be used to install additional packages while running the live system. The defaults employ http.debian.net, a service that chooses a geographically close mirror based, among other things, on the user's IP family and the availability of the mirrors. This is a suitable choice when you cannot predict which mirror will be best for all of your users. Or you may specify your own values as shown in the example below. An image built from this configuration would only be suitable for users on a network where "mirror" is reachable. 386 387 $ lb config --mirror-binary http://mirror/debian/ \
    &#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;--mirror-binary-security http://mirror/debian-security/ \
    &#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;--mirror-binary-backports http://mirror/debian-backports/
8.1.5 Additional repositories 388 You may add more repositories, broadening your package choices beyond what is available in your target distribution. These may be, for example, for backports, experimental or custom packages. To configure additional repositories, create config/archives/your-repository.list.chroot, and/or config/archives/your-repository.list.binary files. As with the --mirror-* options, these govern the repositories used in the chroot stage when building the image, and in the binary stage, i.e. for use when running the live system. 389 For example, config/archives/live.list.chroot allows you to install packages from the debian-live snapshot repository at live system build time. 390 391 deb http://live-systems.org/ sid-snapshots main contrib non-free
If you add the same line to config/archives/live.list.binary, the repository will be added to your live system's /etc/apt/sources.list.d/ directory. 392 If such files exist, they will be picked up automatically. 393 You should also put the GPG key used to sign the repository into config/archives/your-repository.key.{binary,chroot} files. 394 Should you need custom APT pinning, such APT preferences snippets can be placed in config/archives/your-repository.pref.{binary,chroot} files and will be automatically added to your live system's /etc/apt/preferences.d/ directory. 395 8.2 Choosing packages to install 396 There are a number of ways to choose which packages live-build will install in your image, covering a variety of different needs. You can simply name individual packages to install in a package list. You can also use metapackages in those lists, or select them using package control file fields. And finally, you may place package files in your config/ tree, which is well suited to testing of new or experimental packages before they are available from a repository. 397 8.2.1 Package lists 398 Package lists are a powerful way of expressing which packages should be installed. The list syntax supports conditional sections which makes it easy to build lists and adapt them for use in multiple configurations. Package names may also be injected into the list using shell helpers at build time. 399 Note: The behaviour of live-build when specifying a package that does not exist is determined by your choice of APT utility. See Choosing apt or aptitude for more details. 400 8.2.2 Using metapackages 401 The simplest way to populate your package list is to use a task metapackage maintained by your distribution. For example: 402 403 $ lb config
   $ echo task-gnome-desktop > config/package-lists/desktop.list.chroot
This supercedes the older predefined list method supported in live-build 2.x. Unlike predefined lists, task metapackages are not specific to the Live System project. Instead, they are maintained by specialist working groups within the distribution and therefore reflect the consensus of each group about which packages best serve the needs of the intended users. They also cover a much broader range of use cases than the predefined lists they replace. 404 All task metapackages are prefixed task-, so a quick way to determine which are available (though it may contain a handful of false hits that match the name but aren't metapackages) is to match on the package name with: 405 406 $ apt-cache search --names-only ^task-
In addition to these, you will find other metapackages with various purposes. Some are subsets of broader task packages, like gnome-core, while others are individual specialized parts of a Debian Pure Blend, such as the education-* metapackages. To list all metapackages in the archive, install the debtags package and list all packages with the role::metapackage tag as follows: 407 408 $ debtags search role::metapackage
8.2.3 Local package lists 409 Whether you list metapackages, individual packages, or a combination of both, all local package lists are stored in config/package-lists/. Since more than one list can be used, this lends itself well to modular designs. For example, you may decide to devote one list to a particular choice of desktop, another to a collection of related packages that might as easily be used on top of a different desktop. This allows you to experiment with different combinations of sets of packages with a minimum of fuss, sharing common lists between different live image projects. 410 Package lists that exist in this directory need to have a .list suffix in order to be processed, and then an additional stage suffix, .chroot or .binary to indicate which stage the list is for. 411 Note: If you don't specify the stage suffix, the list will be used for both stages. Normally, you want to specify .list.chroot so that the packages will only be installed in the live filesystem and not have an extra copy of the .deb placed on the medium. 412 8.2.4 Local binary package lists 413 To make a binary stage list, place a file suffixed with .list.binary in config/package-lists/. These packages are not installed in the live filesystem, but are included on the live medium under pool/. You would typically use such a list with one of the non-live installer variants. As mentioned above, if you want this list to be the same as your chroot stage list, simply use the .list suffix by itself. 414 8.2.5 Generated package lists 415 It sometimes happens that the best way to compose a list is to generate it with a script. Any line starting with an exclamation point indicates a command to be executed within the chroot when the image is built. For example, one might include the line ! grep-aptavail -n -sPackage -FPriority standard | sort in a package list to produce a sorted list of available packages with Priority: standard. 416 In fact, selecting packages with the grep-aptavail command (from the dctrl-tools package) is so useful that live-build provides a Packages helper script as a convenience. This script takes two arguments: field and pattern. Thus, you can create a list with the following contents: 417 418 $ lb config
   $ echo '! Packages Priority standard' > config/package-lists/standard.list.chroot
8.2.6 Using conditionals inside package lists 419 Any of the live-build configuration variables stored in config/* (minus the LB_ prefix) may be used in conditional statements in package lists. Generally, this means any lb config option uppercased and with dashes changed to underscores. But in practice, it is only the ones that influence package selection that make sense, such as DISTRIBUTION, ARCHITECTURES or ARCHIVE_AREAS. 420 For example, to install ia32-libs if the --architectures amd64 is specified: 421 422 #if ARCHITECTURES amd64
   ia32-libs
   #endif
You may test for any one of a number of values, e.g. to install memtest86+ if either --architectures i386 or --architectures amd64 is specified: 423 424 #if ARCHITECTURES i386 amd64
   memtest86+
   #endif
You may also test against variables that may contain more than one value, e.g. to install vrms if either contrib or non-free is specified via --archive-areas: 425 426 #if ARCHIVE_AREAS contrib non-free
   vrms
   #endif
The nesting of conditionals is not supported. 427 8.2.7 Removing packages at install time 428 You can list packages in files with .list.chroot_live and .list.chroot_install suffixes inside the config/package-lists directory. If both a live and an install list exist, the packages in the .list.chroot_live list are removed with a hook after the installation (if the user uses the installer). The packages in the .list.chroot_install list are present both in the live system and in the installed system. This is a special tweak for the installer and may be useful if you have --debian-installer live set in your config, and wish to remove live system-specific packages at install time. 429 8.2.8 Desktop and language tasks 430 Desktop and language tasks are special cases that need some extra planning and configuration. Live images are different from Debian Installer images in this respect. In the Debian Installer, if the medium was prepared for a particular desktop environment flavour, the corresponding task will be automatically installed. Thus, there are internal gnome-desktop, kde-desktop, lxde-desktop and xfce-desktop tasks, none of which are offered in tasksel's menu. Likewise, there are no menu entries for tasks for languages, but the user's language choice during the install influences the selection of corresponding language tasks. 431 When developing a desktop live image, the image typically boots directly to a working desktop, the choices of both desktop and default language having been made at build time, not at run time as in the case of the Debian Installer. That's not to say that a live image couldn't be built to support multiple desktops or multiple languages and offer the user a choice, but that is not live-build's default behaviour. 432 Because there is no provision made automatically for language tasks, which include such things as language-specific fonts and input-method packages, if you want them, you need to specify them in your configuration. For example, a GNOME desktop image containing support for German might include these task metapackages: 433 434 $ lb config
   $ echo "task-gnome-desktop task-laptop" > > config/package-lists/my.list.chroot
   $ echo "task-german task-german-desktop task-german-gnome-desktop" > > config/package-lists/my.list.chroot
8.2.9 Kernel flavour and version 435 One or more kernel flavours will be included in your image by default, depending on the architecture. You can choose different flavours via the --linux-flavours option. Each flavour is suffixed to the default stub linux-image to form each metapackage name which in turn depends on an exact kernel package to be included in your image. 436 Thus by default, an amd64 architecture image will include the linux-image-amd64 flavour metapackage, and an i386 architecture image will include the linux-image-586 metapackage. 437 When more than one kernel package version is available in your configured archives, you can specify a different kernel package name stub with the --linux-packages option. For example, supposing you are building an amd64 architecture image and add the experimental archive for testing purposes so you can install the linux-image-3.18.0-trunk-amd64 kernel. You would configure that image as follows: 438 439 $ lb config --linux-packages linux-image-3.18.0-trunk
   $ echo "deb http://ftp.debian.org/debian/ experimental main" > config/archives/experimental.list.chroot
8.2.10 Custom kernels 440 You can build and include your own custom kernels, so long as they are integrated within the Debian package management system. The live-build system does not support kernels not built as .deb packages. 441 The proper and recommended way to deploy your own kernel packages is to follow the instructions in the kernel-handbook. Remember to modify the ABI and flavour suffixes appropriately, then include a complete build of the linux and matching linux-latest packages in your repository. 442 If you opt to build the kernel packages without the matching metapackages, you need to specify an appropriate --linux-packages stub as discussed in Kernel flavour and version. As we explain in Installing modified or third-party packages, it is best if you include your custom kernel packages in your own repository, though the alternatives discussed in that section work as well. 443 It is beyond the scope of this document to give advice on how to customize your kernel. However, you must at least ensure your configuration satisfies these minimum requirements: 444 Use an initial ramdisk. 445 Include the union filesystem module (i.e. usually aufs). 446 Include any other filesystem modules required by your configuration (i.e. usually squashfs). 447 8.3 Installing modified or third-party packages 448 While it is against the philosophy of a live system, it may sometimes be necessary to build a live system with modified versions of packages that are in the Debian repository. This may be to modify or support additional features, languages and branding, or even to remove elements of existing packages that are undesirable. Similarly, "third-party" packages may be used to add bespoke and/or proprietary functionality. 449 This section does not cover advice regarding building or maintaining modified packages. Joachim Breitner's 'How to fork privately' method from <http://www.joachim-breitner.de/blog/archives/282-How-to-fork-privately.html> may be of interest, however. The creation of bespoke packages is covered in the Debian New Maintainers' Guide at <https://www.debian.org/doc/maint-guide/> and elsewhere. 450 There are two ways of installing modified custom packages: 451 packages.chroot 452 Using a custom APT repository 453 Using packages.chroot is simpler to achieve and useful for "one-off" customizations but has a number of drawbacks, while using a custom APT repository is more time-consuming to set up. 454 8.3.1 Using packages.chroot to install custom packages 455 To install a custom package, simply copy it to the config/packages.chroot/ directory. Packages that are inside this directory will be automatically installed into the live system during build - you do not need to specify them elsewhere. 456 Packages must be named in the prescribed way. One simple way to do this is to use dpkg-name. 457 Using packages.chroot for installation of custom packages has disadvantages: 458 It is not possible to use secure APT. 459 You must install all appropriate packages in the config/packages.chroot/ directory. 460 It does not lend itself to storing live system configurations in revision control. 461 8.3.2 Using an APT repository to install custom packages 462 Unlike using packages.chroot, when using a custom APT repository you must ensure that you specify the packages elsewhere. See Choosing packages to install for details. 463 While it may seem unnecessary effort to create an APT repository to install custom packages, the infrastructure can be easily re-used at a later date to offer updates of the modified packages. 464 8.3.3 Custom packages and APT 465 live-build uses APT to install all packages into the live system so will therefore inherit behaviours from this program. One relevant example is that (assuming a default configuration) given a package available in two different repositories with different version numbers, APT will elect to install the package with the higher version number. 466 Because of this, you may wish to increment the version number in your custom packages' debian/changelog files to ensure that your modified version is installed over one in the official Debian repositories. This may also be achieved by altering the live system's APT pinning preferences - see APT pinning for more information. 467 8.4 Configuring APT at build time 468 You can configure APT through a number of options applied only at build time. (APT configuration used in the running live system may be configured in the normal way for live system contents, that is, by including the appropriate configurations through config/includes.chroot/.) For a complete list, look for options starting with apt in the lb_config man page. 469 8.4.1 Choosing apt or aptitude 470 You can elect to use either apt or aptitude when installing packages at build time. Which utility is used is governed by the --apt argument to lb config. Choose the method implementing the preferred behaviour for package installation, the notable difference being how missing packages are handled. 471 apt: With this method, if a missing package is specified, the package installation will fail. This is the default setting. 472 aptitude: With this method, if a missing package is specified, the package installation will succeed. 473 8.4.2 Using a proxy with APT 474 One commonly required APT configuration is to deal with building an image behind a proxy. You may specify your APT proxy with the --apt-ftp-proxy or --apt-http-proxy options as needed, e.g. 475 476 $ lb config --apt-http-proxy http://proxy/
8.4.3 Tweaking APT to save space 477 You may find yourself needing to save some space on the image medium, in which case one or the other or both of the following options may be of interest. 478 If you don't want to include APT indices in the image, you can omit those with: 479 480 $ lb config --apt-indices false
This will not influence the entries in /etc/apt/sources.list, but merely whether /var/lib/apt contains the indices files or not. The tradeoff is that APT needs those indices in order to operate in the live system, so before performing apt-cache search or apt-get install, for instance, the user must apt-get update first to create those indices. 481 If you find the installation of recommended packages bloats your image too much, provided you are prepared to deal with the consequences discussed below, you may disable that default option of APT with: 482 483 $ lb config --apt-recommends false
The most important consequence of turning off recommends is that live-boot and live-config themselves recommend some packages that provide important functionality used by most Live configurations, such as user-setup which live-config recommends and is used to create the live user. In all but the most exceptional circumstances you need to add back at least some of these recommends to your package lists or else your image will not work as expected, if at all. Look at the recommended packages for each of the live-* packages included in your build and if you are not certain you can omit them, add them back into your package lists. 484 The more general consequence is that if you don't install recommended packages for any given package, that is, "packages that would be found together with this one in all but unusual installations" (Debian Policy Manual, section 7.2), some packages that users of your Live system actually need may be omitted. Therefore, we suggest you review the difference turning off recommends makes to your packages list (see the binary.packages file generated by lb build) and re-include in your list any missing packages that you still want installed. Alternatively, if you find you only want a small number of recommended packages left out, leave recommends enabled and set a negative APT pin priority on selected packages to prevent them from being installed, as explained in APT pinning. 485 8.4.4 Passing options to apt or aptitude 486 If there is not a lb config option to alter APT's behaviour in the way you need, use --apt-options or --aptitude-options to pass any options through to your configured APT tool. See the man pages for apt and aptitude for details. Note that both options have default values that you will need to retain in addition to any overrides you may provide. So, for example, suppose you have included something from snapshot.debian.org for testing purposes and want to specify Acquire::Check-Valid-Until=false to make APT happy with the stale Release file, you would do so as per the following example, appending the new option after the default value --yes: 487 488 $ lb config --apt-options "--yes -oAcquire::Check-Valid-Until=false"
Please check the man pages to fully understand these options and when to use them. This is an example only and should not be construed as advice to configure your image this way. This option would not be appropriate for, say, a final release of a live image. 489 For more complicated APT configurations involving apt.conf options you might want to create a config/apt/apt.conf file instead. See also the other apt-* options for a few convenient shortcuts for frequently needed options. 490 8.4.5 APT pinning 491 For background, please first read the apt_preferences(5) man page. APT pinning can be configured either for build time, or else for run time. For the former, create config/archives/*.pref, config/archives/*.pref.chroot, and config/apt/preferences. For the latter, create config/includes.chroot/etc/apt/preferences. 492 Let's say you are building a buster live system but need all the live packages that end up in the binary image to be installed from sid at build time. You need to add sid to your APT sources and pin the live packages from it higher, but all other packages from it lower, than the default priority. Thus, only the packages you want are installed from sid at build time and all others are taken from the target system distribution, buster. The following will accomplish this: 493 494 $ echo "deb http://mirror/debian/ sid main" > config/archives/sid.list.chroot
   $ cat > > config/archives/sid.pref.chroot < < EOF
   Package: live-*
   Pin: release n=sid
   Pin-Priority: 600
&lt;br />   Package: *
   Pin: release n=sid
   Pin-Priority: 1
   EOF
Negative pin priorities will prevent a package from being installed, as in the case where you do not want a package that is recommended by another package. Suppose you are building an LXDE image using task-lxde-desktop in config/package-lists/desktop.list.chroot, but don't want the user prompted to store wifi passwords in the keyring. This metapackage depends on lxde-core, which recommends gksu, which in turn recommends gnome-keyring. So you want to omit the recommended gnome-keyring package. This can be done by adding the following stanza to config/apt/preferences: 495 496 Package: gnome-keyring
   Pin: version *
   Pin-Priority: -1
Personalizando conteûdo 497 9. Customizing contents 498 This chapter discusses fine-tuning customization of the live system contents beyond merely choosing which packages to include. Includes allow you to add or replace arbitrary files in your live system image, hooks allow you to execute arbitrary commands at different stages of the build and at boot time, and preseeding allows you to configure packages when they are installed by supplying answers to debconf questions. 499 9.1 Includes 500 While ideally a live system would include files entirely provided by unmodified packages, it is sometimes convenient to provide or modify some content by means of files. Using includes, it is possible to add (or replace) arbitrary files in your live system image. live-build provides two mechanisms for using them: 501 Chroot local includes: These allow you to add or replace files to the chroot/Live filesystem. Please see Live/chroot local includes for more information. 502 Binary local includes: These allow you to add or replace files in the binary image. Please see Binary local includes for more information. 503 Please see Terms for more information about the distinction between the "Live" and "binary" images. 504 9.1.1 Live/chroot local includes 505 Chroot local includes can be used to add or replace files in the chroot/Live filesystem so that they may be used in the Live system. A typical use is to populate the skeleton user directory (/etc/skel) used by the Live system to create the live user's home directory. Another is to supply configuration files that can be simply added or replaced in the image without processing; see Live/chroot local hooks if processing is needed. 506 To include files, simply add them to your config/includes.chroot directory. This directory corresponds to the root directory / of the live system. For example, to add a file /var/www/index.html in the live system, use: 507 508 $ mkdir -p config/includes.chroot/var/www
   $ cp /path/to/my/index.html config/includes.chroot/var/www
Your configuration will then have the following layout: 509 510 -- config
    &#160;&#160;&#160;[...]
    &#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;|-- includes.chroot
    &#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;| &#160;&#160;`-- var
    &#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;| &#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;`-- www
    &#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;| &#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;`-- index.html
    &#160;&#160;&#160;[...]
Chroot local includes are installed after package installation so that files installed by packages are overwritten. 511 9.1.2 Binary local includes 512 To include material such as documentation or videos on the medium filesystem so that it is accessible immediately upon insertion of the medium without booting the Live system, you can use binary local includes. This works in a similar fashion to chroot local includes. For example, suppose the files ~/video_demo.* are demo videos of the live system described by and linked to by an HTML index page. Simply copy the material to config/includes.binary/ as follows: 513 514 $ cp ~/video_demo.* config/includes.binary/
These files will now appear in the root directory of the live medium. 515 9.2 Hooks 516 Hooks allow commands to be performed in the chroot and binary stages of the build in order to customize the image. 517 9.2.1 Live/chroot local hooks 518 To run commands in the chroot stage, create a hook script with a .hook.chroot suffix containing the commands in the config/hooks/ directory. The hook will run in the chroot after the rest of your chroot configuration has been applied, so remember to ensure your configuration includes all packages and files your hook needs in order to run. See the example chroot hook scripts for various common chroot customization tasks provided in /usr/share/doc/live-build/examples/hooks which you can copy or symlink to use them in your own configuration. 519 9.2.2 Boot-time hooks 520 To execute commands at boot time, you can supply live-config hooks as explained in the "Customization" section of its man page. Examine live-config's own hooks provided in /lib/live/config/, noting the sequence numbers. Then provide your own hook prefixed with an appropriate sequence number, either as a chroot local include in config/includes.chroot/lib/live/config/, or as a custom package as discussed in Installing modified or third-party packages. 521 9.2.3 Binary local hooks 522 To run commands in the binary stage, create a hook script with a .hook.binary suffix containing the commands in the config/hooks/ directory. The hook will run after all other binary commands are run, but before binary_checksums, the very last binary command. The commands in your hook do not run in the chroot, so take care to not modify any files outside of the build tree, or you may damage your build system! See the example binary hook scripts for various common binary customization tasks provided in /usr/share/doc/live-build/examples/hooks which you can copy or symlink to use them in your own configuration. 523 9.3 Preseeding Debconf questions 524 Files in the config/preseed/ directory suffixed with .cfg followed by the stage (.chroot or .binary) are considered to be debconf preseed files and are installed by live-build using debconf-set-selections during the corresponding stage. 525 For more information about debconf, please see debconf(7) in the debconf package. 526 Customizing run time behaviours 527 10. Customizing run time behaviours 528 All configuration that is done during run time is done by live-config. Here are some of the most common options of live-config that users are interested in. A full list of all possibilities can be found in the man page of live-config. 529 10.1 Customizing the live user 530 One important consideration is that the live user is created by live-boot at boot time, not by live-build at build time. This not only influences where materials relating to the live user are introduced in your build, as discussed in Live/chroot local includes, but also any groups and permissions associated with the live user. 531 You can specify additional groups that the live user will belong to by using any of the possibilities to configure live-config. For example, to add the live user to the fuse group, you can either add the following file in config/includes.chroot/etc/live/config/user-setup.conf: 532 533 LIVE_USER_DEFAULT_GROUPS="audio cdrom dip floppy video plugdev netdev powerdev scanner bluetooth fuse"
or use live-config.user-default-groups=audio,cdrom,dip,floppy,video,plugdev,netdev,powerdev,scanner,bluetooth,fuse as a boot parameter. 534 It is also possible to change the default username "user" and the default password "live". If you want to do that for any reason, you can easily achieve it as follows: 535 To change the default username you can simply specify it in your config: 536 537 $ lb config --bootappend-live "boot=live components username=live-user"
One possible way of changing the default password is by means of a hook as described in Boot-time hooks. In order to do that you can use the "passwd" hook from /usr/share/doc/live-config/examples/hooks, prefix it accordingly (e.g. 2000-passwd) and add it to config/includes.chroot/lib/live/config/ 538 10.2 Customizing locale and language 539 When the live system boots, language is involved in two steps: 540 the locale generation 541 setting the keyboard configuration 542 The default locale when building a Live system is locales=en_US.UTF-8. To define the locale that should be generated, use the locales parameter in the --bootappend-live option of lb config, e.g. 543 544 $ lb config --bootappend-live "boot=live components locales=de_CH.UTF-8"
Multiple locales may be specified as a comma-delimited list. 545 This parameter, as well as the keyboard configuration parameters indicated below, can also be used at the kernel command line. You can specify a locale by language_country (in which case the default encoding is used) or the full language_country.encoding word. A list of supported locales and the encoding for each can be found in /usr/share/i18n/SUPPORTED. 546 Both the console and X keyboard configuration are performed by live-config using the console-setup package. To configure them, use the keyboard-layouts, keyboard-variants, keyboard-options and keyboard-model boot parameters via the --bootappend-live option. Valid options for these can be found in /usr/share/X11/xkb/rules/base.lst. To find layouts and variants for a given language, try searching for the English name of the language and/or the country where the language is spoken, e.g: 547 548 $ egrep -i '(^!|german.*switzerland)' /usr/share/X11/xkb/rules/base.lst
   ! model
   ! layout
    &#160;&#160;ch &#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;German (Switzerland)
   ! variant
    &#160;&#160;legacy &#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;ch: German (Switzerland, legacy)
    &#160;&#160;de_nodeadkeys &#160;&#160;ch: German (Switzerland, eliminate dead keys)
    &#160;&#160;de_sundeadkeys &#160;ch: German (Switzerland, Sun dead keys)
    &#160;&#160;de_mac &#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;ch: German (Switzerland, Macintosh)
   ! option
Note that each variant lists the layout to which it applies in the description. 549 Often, only the layout needs to be configured. For example, to get the locale files for German and Swiss German keyboard layout in X use: 550 551 $ lb config --bootappend-live "boot=live components locales=de_CH.UTF-8 keyboard-layouts=ch"
However, for very specific use cases, you may wish to include other parameters. For example, to set up a French system with a French-Dvorak layout (called Bepo) on a TypeMatrix EZ-Reach 2030 USB keyboard, use: 552 553 $ lb config --bootappend-live \
    &#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;"boot=live components locales=fr_FR.UTF-8 keyboard-layouts=fr keyboard-variants=bepo keyboard-model=tm2030usb"
Multiple values may be specified as comma-delimited lists for each of the keyboard-* options, with the exception of keyboard-model, which accepts only one value. Please see the keyboard(5) man page for details and examples of XKBMODEL, XKBLAYOUT, XKBVARIANT and XKBOPTIONS variables. If multiple keyboard-variants values are given, they will be matched one-to-one with keyboard-layouts values (see setxkbmap(1) -variant option). Empty values are allowed; e.g. to define two layouts, the default being US QWERTY and the other being US Dvorak, use: 554 555 $ lb config --bootappend-live \
    &#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;"boot=live components keyboard-layouts=us,us keyboard-variants=,dvorak"
10.3 Persistence 556 A live cd paradigm is a pre-installed system which runs from read-only media, like a cdrom, where writes and modifications do not survive reboots of the host hardware which runs it. 557 A live system is a generalization of this paradigm and thus supports other media in addition to CDs; but still, in its default behaviour, it should be considered read-only and all the run-time evolutions of the system are lost at shutdown. 558 'Persistence' is a common name for different kinds of solutions for saving across reboots some, or all, of this run-time evolution of the system. To understand how it works it would be handy to know that even if the system is booted and run from read-only media, modifications to the files and directories are written on writable media, typically a ram disk (tmpfs) and ram disks' data do not survive reboots. 559 The data stored on this ramdisk should be saved on a writable persistent medium like local storage media, a network share or even a session of a multisession (re)writable CD/DVD. All these media are supported in live systems in different ways, and all but the last one require a special boot parameter to be specified at boot time: persistence. 560 If the boot parameter persistence is set (and nopersistence is not set), local storage media (e.g. hard disks, USB drives) will be probed for persistence volumes during boot. It is possible to restrict which types of persistence volumes to use by specifying certain boot parameters described in the live-boot(7) man page. A persistence volume is any of the following: 561 a partition, identified by its GPT name. 562 a filesystem, identified by its filesystem label. 563 an image file located on the root of any readable filesystem (even an NTFS partition of a foreign OS), identified by its filename. 564 The volume label for overlays must be persistence but it will be ignored unless it contains in its root a file named persistence.conf which is used to fully customize the volume's persistence, this is to say, specifying the directories that you want to save in your persistence volume after a reboot. See The persistence.conf file for more details. 565 Here are some examples of how to prepare a volume to be used for persistence. It can be, for instance, an ext4 partition on a hard disk or on a usb key created with, e.g.: 566 567 # mkfs.ext4 -L persistence /dev/sdb1
See also Using the space left on a USB stick. 568 If you already have a partition on your device, you could just change the label with one of the following: 569 570 # tune2fs -L persistence /dev/sdb1 # for ext2,3,4 filesystems
Here's an example of how to create an ext4-based image file to be used for persistence: 571 572 $ dd if=/dev/null of=persistence bs=1 count=0 seek=1G # for a 1GB sized image file
   $ /sbin/mkfs.ext4 -F persistence
Once the image file is created, as an example, to make /usr persistent but only saving the changes you make to that directory and not all the contents of /usr, you can use the "union" option. If the image file is located in your home directory, copy it to the root of your hard drive's filesystem and mount it in /mnt as follows: 573 574 # cp persistence /
   # mount -t ext4 /persistence /mnt
Then, create the persistence.conf file adding content and unmount the image file. 575 576 # echo "/usr union" > > /mnt/persistence.conf
   # umount /mnt
Now, reboot into your live medium with the boot parameter "persistence". 577 10.3.1 The persistence.conf file 578 A volume with the label persistence must be configured by means of the persistence.conf file to make arbitrary directories persistent. That file, located on the volume's filesystem root, controls which directories it makes persistent, and in which way. 579 How custom overlay mounts are configured is described in full detail in the persistence.conf(5) man page, but a simple example should be sufficient for most uses. Let's say we want to make our home directory and APT cache persistent in an ext4 filesystem on the /dev/sdb1 partition: 580 581 # mkfs.ext4 -L persistence /dev/sdb1
   # mount -t ext4 /dev/sdb1 /mnt
   # echo "/home" > > /mnt/persistence.conf
   # echo "/var/cache/apt" > > /mnt/persistence.conf
   # umount /mnt
Then we reboot. During the first boot the contents of /home and /var/cache/apt will be copied into the persistence volume, and from then on all changes to these directories will live in the persistence volume. Please note that any paths listed in the persistence.conf file cannot contain white spaces or the special . and .. path components. Also, neither /lib, /lib/live (or any of their sub-directories) nor / can be made persistent using custom mounts. As a workaround for this limitation you can add / union to your persistence.conf file to achieve full persistence. 582 10.3.2 Using more than one persistence store 583 There are different methods of using multiple persistence store for different use cases. For instance, using several volumes at the same time or selecting only one, among various, for very specific purposes. 584 Several different custom overlay volumes (with their own persistence.conf files) can be used at the same time, but if several volumes make the same directory persistent, only one of them will be used. If any two mounts are "nested" (i.e. one is a sub-directory of the other) the parent will be mounted before the child so no mount will be hidden by the other. Nested custom mounts are problematic if they are listed in the same persistence.conf file. See the persistence.conf(5) man page for how to handle that case if you really need it (hint: you usually don't). 585 One possible use case: If you wish to store the user data i.e. /home and the superuser data i.e. /root in different partitions, create two partitions with the persistence label and add a persistence.conf file in each one like this, # echo "/home" > persistence.conf for the first partition that will save the user's files and # echo "/root" > persistence.conf for the second partition which will store the superuser's files. Finally, use the persistence boot parameter. 586 If a user would need multiple persistence store of the same type for different locations or testing, such as private and work, the boot parameter persistence-label used in conjunction with the boot parameter persistence will allow for multiple but unique persistence media. An example would be if a user wanted to use a persistence partition labeled private for personal data like browser bookmarks or other types, they would use the boot parameters: persistence persistence-label=private. And to store work related data, like documents, research projects or other types, they would use the boot parameters: persistence persistence-label=work. 587 It is important to remember that each of these volumes, private and work, also needs a persistence.conf file in its root. The live-boot man page contains more information about how to use these labels with legacy names. 588 10.3.3 Using persistence with encryption 589 Using the persistence feature means that some sensible data might get exposed to risk. Especially if the persistent data is stored on a portable device such as a usb stick or an external hard drive. That is when encryption comes in handy. Even if the entire procedure might seem complicated because of the number of steps to be taken, it is really easy to handle encrypted partitions with live-boot. In order to use luks, which is the supported encryption type, you need to install cryptsetup both on the machine you are creating the encrypted partition with and also in the live system you are going to use the encrypted persistent partition with. 590 To install cryptsetup on your machine: 591 592 # apt-get install cryptsetup
To install cryptsetup in your live system, add it to your package-lists: 593 594 $ lb config
   $ echo "cryptsetup" > config/package-lists/encryption.list.chroot
Once you have your live system with cryptsetup, you basically only need to create a new partition, encrypt it and boot with the persistence and persistence-encryption=luks parameters. We could have already anticipated this step and added the boot parameters following the usual procedure: 595 596 $ lb config --bootappend-live "boot=live components persistence persistence-encryption=luks"
Let's go into the details for all of those who are not familiar with encryption. In the following example we are going to use a partition on a usb stick which corresponds to /dev/sdc2. Please be warned that you need to determine which partition is the one you are going to use in your specific case. 597 The first step is plugging in your usb stick and determine which device it is. The recommended method of listing devices in live-manual is using ls -l /dev/disk/by-id. After that, create a new partition and then, encrypt it with a passphrase as follows: 598 599 # cryptsetup --verify-passphrase luksFormat /dev/sdc2
Then open the luks partition in the virtual device mapper. Use any name you like. We use live here as an example: 600 601 # cryptsetup luksOpen /dev/sdc2 live
The next step is filling the device with zeros before creating the filesystem: 602 603 # dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/mapper/live
Now, we are ready to create the filesystem. Notice that we are adding the label persistence so that the device is mounted as persistence store at boot time. 604 605 # mkfs.ext4 -L persistence /dev/mapper/live
To continue with our setup, we need to mount the device, for example in /mnt. 606 607 # mount /dev/mapper/live /mnt
And create the persistence.conf file in the root of the partition. This is, as explained before, strictly necessary. See The persistence.conf file. 608 609 # echo "/ union" > /mnt/persistence.conf
Then unmount the mount point: 610 611 # umount /mnt
And optionally, although it might be a good way of securing the data we have just added to the partition, we can close the device: 612 613 # cryptsetup luksClose live
Let's summarize the process. So far, we have created an encryption capable live system, which can be copied to a usb stick as explained in Copying an ISO hybrid image to a USB stick. We have also created an encrypted partition, which can be located in the same usb stick to carry it around and we have configured the encrypted partition to be used as persistence store. So now, we only need to boot the live system. At boot time, live-boot will prompt us for the passphrase and will mount the encrypted partition to be used for persistence. 614 Customizing the binary image 615 11. Customizing the binary image 616 11.1 Bootloaders 617 live-build uses syslinux and some of its derivatives (depending on the image type) as bootloaders by default. They can be easily customized to suit your needs. 618 In order to use a full theme, copy /usr/share/live/build/bootloaders into config/bootloaders and edit the files in there. If you do not want to bother modifying all supported bootloader configurations, only providing a local customized copy of one of the bootloaders, e.g. isolinux in config/bootloaders/isolinux is enough too, depending on your use case. 619 When modifying one of the default themes, if you want to use a personalized background image that will be displayed together with the boot menu, add a splash.png picture of 640x480 pixels. Then, remove the splash.svg file. 620 There are many possibilities when it comes to making changes. For instance, syslinux derivatives are configured by default with a timeout of 0 (zero) which means that they will pause indefinitely at their splash screen until you press a key. 621 To modify the boot timeout of a default iso-hybrid image just edit a default isolinux.cfg file specifying the timeout in units of 1/10 seconds. A modified isolinux.cfg to boot after five seconds would be similar to this: 622 623 include menu.cfg
   default vesamenu.c32
   prompt 0
   timeout 50
11.2 ISO metadata 624 When creating an ISO9660 binary image, you can use the following options to add various textual metadata for your image. This can help you easily identify the version or configuration of an image without booting it. 625 LB_ISO_APPLICATION/--iso-application NAME: This should describe the application that will be on the image. The maximum length for this field is 128 characters. 626 LB_ISO_PREPARER/--iso-preparer NAME: This should describe the preparer of the image, usually with some contact details. The default for this option is the live-build version you are using, which may help with debugging later. The maximum length for this field is 128 characters. 627 LB_ISO_PUBLISHER/--iso-publisher NAME: This should describe the publisher of the image, usually with some contact details. The maximum length for this field is 128 characters. 628 LB_ISO_VOLUME/--iso-volume NAME: This should specify the volume ID of the image. This is used as a user-visible label on some platforms such as Windows and Apple Mac OS. The maximum length for this field is 32 characters. 629 Customizing Debian Installer 630 12. Customizing Debian Installer 631 Live system images can be integrated with Debian Installer. There are a number of different types of installation, varying in what is included and how the installer operates. 632 Please note the careful use of capital letters when referring to the "Debian Installer" in this section - when used like this we refer explicitly to the official installer for the Debian system, not anything else. It is often seen abbreviated to "d-i". 633 12.1 Types of Debian Installer 634 The three main types of installer are: 635 "Normal" Debian Installer: This is a normal live system image with a separate kernel and initrd which (when selected from the appropriate bootloader) launches into a standard Debian Installer instance, just as if you had downloaded a CD image of Debian and booted it. Images containing a live system and such an otherwise independent installer are often referred to as "combined images". 636 On such images, Debian is installed by fetching and installing .deb packages using debootstrap, from local media or some network-based network, resulting in a default Debian system being installed to the hard disk. 637 This whole process can be preseeded and customized in a number of ways; see the relevant pages in the Debian Installer manual for more information. Once you have a working preseeding file, live-build can automatically put it in the image and enable it for you. 638 "Live" Debian Installer: This is a live system image with a separate kernel and initrd which (when selected from the appropriate bootloader) launches into an instance of the Debian Installer. 639 Installation will proceed in an identical fashion to the "normal" installation described above, but at the actual package installation stage, instead of using debootstrap to fetch and install packages, the live filesystem image is copied to the target. This is achieved with a special udeb called live-installer. 640 After this stage, the Debian Installer continues as normal, installing and configuring items such as bootloaders and local users, etc. 641 Note: to support both normal and live installer entries in the bootloader of the same live medium, you must disable live-installer by preseeding live-installer/enable=false. 642 "Desktop" Debian Installer: Regardless of the type of Debian Installer included, d-i can be launched from the Desktop by clicking on an icon. This is user friendlier in some situations. In order to make use of this, the debian-installer-launcher package needs to be included. 643 Note that by default, live-build does not include Debian Installer images in the images, it needs to be specifically enabled with lb config. Also, please note that for the "Desktop" installer to work, the kernel of the live system must match the kernel d-i uses for the specified architecture. For example: 644 645 $ lb config --architectures i386 --linux-flavours 586 \
    &#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;--debian-installer live
   $ echo debian-installer-launcher > > config/package-lists/my.list.chroot
12.2 Customizing Debian Installer by preseeding 646 As described in the Debian Installer Manual, Appendix B at <https://www.debian.org/releases/stable/i386/apb.html>, "Preseeding provides a way to set answers to questions asked during the installation process, without having to manually enter the answers while the installation is running. This makes it possible to fully automate most types of installation and even offers some features not available during normal installations." This kind of customization is best accomplished with live-build by placing the configuration in a preseed.cfg file included in config/includes.installer/. For example, to preseed setting the locale to en_US: 647 648 $ echo "d-i debian-installer/locale string en_US" \
    &#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#62;&#62; config/includes.installer/preseed.cfg
12.3 Customizing Debian Installer content 649 For experimental or debugging purposes, you might want to include locally built d-i component udeb packages. Place these in config/packages.binary/ to include them in the image. Additional or replacement files and directories may be included in the installer initrd as well, in a similar fashion to Live/chroot local includes, by placing the material in config/includes.installer/. 650 Projeto 651 Contributing to the project 652 13. Contributing to the project 653 When submitting a contribution, please clearly identify its copyright holder and include any applicable licensing statement. Note that to be accepted, the contribution must be licensed under the same license as the rest of the documents, namely, GPL version 3 or later. 654 Contributions to the project, such as translations and patches, are greatly welcome. Anyone can directly commit to the repositories, however, we ask you to send bigger changes to the mailing list to discuss them first. See the section Contact for more information. 655 The Live Systems Project uses Git as version control system and source code management. As explained in Git repositories there are two main development branches: debian and debian-next. Everybody can commit to the debian-next branches of the live-boot, live-build, live-config, live-images, live-manual and live-tools repositories. 656 However, there are certain restrictions. The server will reject: 657 Non fast-forward pushes. 658 Merge commits. 659 Adding or removing tags or branches. 660 Even though all commits might be revised, we ask you to use your common sense and make good commits with good commit messages. 661 Write commit messages that consist of complete, meaningful sentences in English, starting with a capital letter and ending with a full stop. Usually, these will start with the form "Fixing/Adding/Removing/Correcting/Translating/...". 662 Write good commit messages. The first line must be an accurate summary of the contents of the commit which will be included in the changelog. If you need to make some further explanations, write them below leaving a blank line after the first one and then another blank line after each paragraph. Lines of paragraphs should not exceed 80 characters in length. 663 Commit atomically, this is to say, do not mix unrelated things in the same commit. Make one different commit for each change you make. 664 13.1 Aplicando Atualizaç&#245;es 665 In order to push to the repositories, you must follow the following procedure. Here we use live-manual as an example so replace it with the name of the repository you want to work with. For detailed information on how to edit live-manual see Contributing to this document. 666 Obter a chave publica de commit: 667 668 $ mkdir -p ~/.ssh/keys
   $ wget http://live-systems.org/other/keys/git@live-systems.org -O ~/.ssh/keys/git@live-systems.org
   $ wget http://live-systems.org/other/keys/git@live-systems.org.pub -O ~/.ssh/keys/git@live-systems.org.pub
   $ chmod 0600 ~/.ssh/keys/git@live-systems.org*
Adicione a seguinte sessão na configuraç&#227;o do seu openssh-client: 669 670 $ cat > > ~/.ssh/config < < EOF
   Host live-systems.org
    &#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;Hostname live-systems.org
    &#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;User git
    &#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;IdentitiesOnly yes
    &#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;IdentityFile ~/.ssh/keys/git@live-systems.org
   EOF
Check out a clone of live-manual through ssh: 671 672 $ git clone git@live-systems.org:/live-manual.git
   $ cd live-manual &&amp; git checkout debian-next
Make sure you have Git author and email set: 673 674  &#160;$ git config user.name "John Doe"
    &#160;$ git config user.email john@example.org
Importante: Observe que você acessa quaisquer alteraç&#245;es no ramo debian-next. 675 Make your changes. In this example you would first write a new section dealing with applying patches and then prepare to commit adding the files and writing your commit message like this: 676 677 $ git commit -a -m "Adding a section on applying patches."
Enviar as submissões para os servidor. 678 679 $ git push
Reporting bugs 680 14. Reporting bugs 681 Live systems are far from being perfect, but we want to make it as close as possible to perfect - with your help. Do not hesitate to report a bug. It is better to fill a report twice than never. However, this chapter includes recommendations on how to file good bug reports. 682 For the impatient: 683 Always check first the image status updates on our homepage at <http://live-systems.org/> for known issues. 684 Before submitting a bug report always try to reproduce the bug with the most recent versions of the branch of live-build, live-boot, live-config and live-tools that you're using (like the newest 4.x version of live-build if you're using live-build 4). 685 Try to give as specific information as possible about the bug. This includes (at least) the version of live-build, live-boot, live-config, and live-tools used and the distribution of the live system you are building. 686 14.1 Known issues 687 Since Debian testing and Debian unstable distributions are moving targets, when you specify either of them as the target system distribution, a successful build may not always be possible. 688 If this causes too much difficulty for you, do not build a system based on testing or unstable, but rather, use stable. live-build always defaults to the stable release. 689 Currently known issues are listed under the section 'status' on our homepage at <http://live-systems.org/>. 690 It is out of the scope of this manual to train you to correctly identify and fix problems in packages of the development distributions, however, there are two things you can always try: If a build fails when the target distribution is testing, try unstable. If unstable does not work either, revert to testing and pin the newer version of the failing package from unstable (see APT pinning for details). 691 14.2 Rebuild from scratch 692 To ensure that a particular bug is not caused by an uncleanly built system, please always rebuild the whole live system from scratch to see if the bug is reproducible. 693 14.3 Use up-to-date packages 694 Using outdated packages can cause significant problems when trying to reproduce (and ultimately fix) your problem. Make sure your build system is up-to-date and any packages included in your image are up-to-date as well. 695 14.4 Collect information 696 Please provide enough information with your report. Include, at least, the exact version of live-build where the bug is encountered and the steps to reproduce it. Please use your common sense and provide any other relevant information if you think that it might help in solving the problem. 697 To make the most out of your bug report, we require at least the following information: 698 Architecture of the host system 699 Distribution of the host system 700 Version of live-build on the host system 701 Version of debootstrap and/or cdebootstrap on the host system 702 Architecture of the live system 703 Distribution of the live system 704 Version of live-boot on the live system 705 Version of live-config on the live system 706 Version of live-tools on the live system 707 You can generate a log of the build process by using the tee command. We recommend doing this automatically with an auto/build script (see Managing a configuration for details). 708 709 # lb build 2>&1 | tee build.log
At boot time, live-boot and live-config store their logfiles in /var/log/live/. Check them for error messages. 710 Additionally, to rule out other errors, it is always a good idea to tar up your config/ directory and upload it somewhere (do not send it as an attachment to the mailing list), so that we can try to reproduce the errors you encountered. If this is difficult (e.g. due to size) you can use the output of lb config --dump which produces a summary of your config tree (i.e. lists files in subdirectories of config/ but does not include them). 711 Remember to send in any logs that were produced with English locale settings, e.g. run your live-build commands with a leading LC_ALL=C or LC_ALL=en_US. 712 14.5 Isolate the failing case if possible 713 If possible, isolate the failing case to the smallest possible change that breaks. It is not always easy to do this so if you cannot manage it for your report, do not worry. However, if you plan your development cycle well, using small enough change sets per iteration, you may be able to isolate the problem by constructing a simpler 'base' configuration that closely matches your actual configuration plus just the broken change set added to it. If you have a hard time sorting out which of your changes broke, it may be that you are including too much in each change set and should develop in smaller increments. 714 14.6 Use the correct package to report the bug against 715 If you do not know what component is responsible for the bug or if the bug is a general bug concerning live systems, you can fill a bug against the debian-live pseudo-package. 716 However, we would appreciate it if you try to narrow it down according to where the bug appears. 717 14.6.1 At build time while bootstrapping 718 live-build first bootstraps a basic Debian system with debootstrap or cdebootstrap. Depending on the bootstrapping tool used and the Debian distribution it is bootstrapping, it may fail. If a bug appears here, check if the error is related to a specific Debian package (most likely), or if it is related to the bootstrapping tool itself. 719 In both cases, this is not a bug in the live system, but rather in Debian itself and probably we cannot fix it directly. Please report such a bug against the bootstrapping tool or the failing package. 720 14.6.2 At build time while installing packages 721 live-build installs additional packages from the Debian archive and depending on the Debian distribution used and the daily archive state, it can fail. If a bug appears here, check if the error is also reproducible on a normal system. 722 If this is the case, this is not a bug in the live system, but rather in Debian - please report it against the failing package. Running debootstrap separately from the Live system build or running lb bootstrap --debug will give you more information. 723 Also, if you are using a local mirror and/or any sort of proxy and you are experiencing a problem, please always reproduce it first by bootstrapping from an official mirror. 724 14.6.3 At boot time 725 If your image does not boot, please report it to the mailing list together with the information requested in Collect information. Do not forget to mention, how/when the image failed exactly, whether using virtualization or real hardware. If you are using a virtualization technology of any kind, please always run it on real hardware before reporting a bug. Providing a screenshot of the failure is also very helpful. 726 14.6.4 At run time 727 If a package was successfully installed, but fails while actually running the Live system, this is probably a bug in the live system. However: 728 14.7 Do the research 729 Before filing the bug, please search the web for the particular error message or symptom you are getting. As it is highly unlikely that you are the only person experiencing a particular problem. There is always a chance that it has been discussed elsewhere and a possible solution, patch, or workaround has been proposed. 730 You should pay particular attention to the live systems mailing list, as well as the homepage, as these are likely to contain the most up-to-date information. If such information exists, always include the references to it in your bug report. 731 In addition, you should check the current bug lists for live-build, live-boot, live-config and live-tools to see whether something similar has already been reported. 732 14.8 Where to report bugs 733 The Live Systems Project keeps track of all bugs in the Bug Tracking System (BTS). For information on how to use the system, please see <https://bugs.debian.org/>. You can also submit the bugs by using the reportbug command from the package with the same name. 734 In general, you should report build time errors against the live-build package, boot time errors against live-boot, and run time errors against live-config. If you are unsure of which package is appropriate or need more help before submitting a bug report, please report it against the debian-live pseudo-package. We will then take care about it and reassign it where appropriate. 735 Please note that bugs found in distributions derived from Debian (such as Ubuntu and others) should not be reported to the Debian BTS unless they can be also reproduced on a Debian system using official Debian packages. 736 Coding Style 737 15. Coding Style 738 This chapter documents the coding style used in live systems. 739 15.1 Compatibility 740 Don't use syntax or semantics that are unique to the Bash shell. For example, the use of array constructs. 741 Only use the POSIX subset - for example, use $(foo) over `foo`. 742 You can check your scripts with 'sh -n' and 'checkbashisms'. 743 Make sure all shell code runs with 'set -e'. 744 15.2 Indenting 745 Always use tabs over spaces. 746 15.3 Wrapping 747 Generally, lines are 80 chars at maximum. 748 Use the "Linux style" of line breaks: 749 Bad: 750 751 if foo; then
    &#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;bar
   fi
Good: 752 753 if foo
   then
    &#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;bar
   fi
The same holds for functions: 754 Bad: 755 756 Foo () {
    &#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;bar
   }
Good: 757 758 Foo ()
   {
    &#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;bar
   }
15.4 Variables 759 Variables are always in capital letters. 760 Variables used in live-build always start with LB_ prefix. 761 Internal temporary variables in live-build should start with the _LB_ prefix. 762 Local variables start with live-build _&#095;LB_ prefix. 763 Variables in connection to a boot parameter in live-config start with LIVE_. 764 All other variables in live-config start with _ prefix. 765 Use braces around variables; e.g. write ${FOO} instead of $FOO. 766 Always protect variables with quotes to respect potential whitespaces: write "${FOO}" not ${FOO}. 767 For consistency reasons, always use quotes when assigning values to variables: 768 Bad: 769 770 FOO=bar
Good: 771 772 FOO="bar"
If multiple variables are used, quote the full expression: 773 Bad: 774 775 if [ -f "${FOO}"/foo/"${BAR}"/bar ]
   then
    &#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;foobar
   fi
Good: 776 777 if [ -f "${FOO}/foo/${BAR}/bar" ]
   then
    &#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;foobar
   fi
15.5 Miscellaneous 778 Use "|" (without the surround quotes) as a separator in calls to sed, e.g. "sed -e 's|foo|bar|'" (without ""). 779 Don't use the test command for comparisons or tests, use "[" "]" (without ""); e.g. "if [ -x /bin/foo ]; ..." and not "if test -x /bin/foo; ...". 780 Use case wherever possible over test, as it's easier to read and faster in execution. 781 Use capitalized names for functions to limit messing with the users environment. 782 Procedures 783 16. Procedures 784 This chapter documents the procedures within the Live Systems Project for various tasks that need cooperation with other teams in Debian. 785 16.1 Major Releases 786 Releasing a new stable major version of Debian includes a lot of different teams working together to make it happen. At some point, the Live team comes in and builds live system images. The requirements to do this are: 787 A mirror containing the released versions for the debian and debian-security archives which the debian-live buildd can access. 788 The names of the image need to be known (e.g. debian-live-VERSION-ARCH-FLAVOUR.iso). 789 The data from debian-cd needs to be synced (udeb exclude lists). 790 Images are built and mirrored on cdimage.debian.org. 791 16.2 Point Releases 792 Again, we need updated mirrors of debian and debian-security. 793 Images are built and mirrored on cdimage.debian.org. 794 Send announcement mail. 795 16.2.1 Last Point Release of a Debian Release 796 Remember to adjust both chroot and binary mirrors when building the last set of images for a Debian release after it has been moved away from ftp.debian.org to archive.debian.org. That way, old prebuilt live images are still useful without user modifications. 797 16.2.2 Point release announcement template 798 An announcement mail for point releases can be generated using the template below and the following command: 799 800 $ sed \
    &#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;-e 's|@MAJOR@|9.0|g' \
    &#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;-e 's|@MINOR@|9.0.1|g' \
    &#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;-e 's|@CODENAME@|stretch|g' \
    &#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;-e 's|@ANNOUNCE@|2017/msgXXXXX.html|g'
Please check the mail carefully before sending and pass it to others for proof-reading. 801 802 Updated Live @MAJOR@: @MINOR@ released
&lt;br />   The Live Systems Project is pleased to announce the @MINOR@ update of the
   Live images for the stable distribution Debian @MAJOR@ (codename "@CODENAME@").
&lt;br />   The images are available for download at:
&lt;br />    &#160;&#160;&#60;http://live-systems.org/cdimage/release/current/>&lt;br />
   and later at:
&lt;br />    &#160;&#160;&#60;http://cdimage.debian.org/cdimage/release/current-live/>&lt;br />
   This update includes the changes of the Debian @MINOR@ release:
&lt;br />    &#160;&#160;&#60;https://lists.debian.org/debian-announce/@ANNOUNCE@>&lt;br />
   Additionally it includes the following Live-specific changes:
&lt;br />    &#160;* [INSERT LIVE-SPECIFIC CHANGE HERE]
    &#160;* [INSERT LIVE-SPECIFIC CHANGE HERE]
    &#160;* [LARGER ISSUES MAY DESERVE THEIR OWN SECTION]
&lt;br />   About Live Systems
   ------------------
   The Live Systems Project produces the tools used to build official
   live systems and the official live images themselves for Debian.
&lt;br />   About Debian
   ------------
   The Debian Project is an association of Free Software developers who
   volunteer their time and effort in order to produce the completely free
   operating system Debian.
&lt;br />   Contact Information
   -------------------
   For further information, please visit the Live Systems web pages at
   < http://live-systems.org/>, or contact the Live Systems team at
   < debian-live@lists.debian.org>.
Git repositories 803 17. Git repositories 804 The list of all the available repositories of the Live Systems Project can be found at <http://live-systems.org/gitweb/>. The project's git URLs have the form: protocol://live-systems.org/git/repository. Thus, in order to clone live-manual read-only, launch: 805 806 $ git clone git://live-systems.org/git/live-manual.git
Or, 807 808 $ git clone https://live-systems.org/git/live-manual.git
Or, 809 810 $ git clone http://live-systems.org/git/live-manual.git
The cloning addresses with write permission have the form: git@live-systems.org:/repository. 811 So, again, to clone live-manual over ssh you must type: 812 813 $ git clone git@live-systems.org:live-manual.git
The git tree is made up of several different branches. The debian and the debian-next branches are particularly noteworthy because they contain the actual work that will eventually be included in each new release. 814 After cloning any of the existing repositories, you will be on the debian branch. This is appropriate to take a look at the state of the project's latest release but before starting work it is crucial to switch to the debian-next branch. To do so: 815 816 $ git checkout debian-next
The debian-next branch, which is not always fast-forward, is where all the changes are committed first before being merged into the debian branch. To make an analogy, it is like a testing ground. If you are working on this branch and need to pull, you will have to do a git pull --rebase so that your local modifications are staged while pulling from the server and then your changes will be put on top of it all. 817 17.1 Handling multiple repositories 818 If you intend to clone several of the live systems repositories and want to switch to the debian-next branch right away to check the latest code, write a patch or contribute with a translation you ought to know that the git server provides a mrconfig file to ease the handling of multiple repositories. In order to use it you need to install the mr package and after that, launch: 819 820 $ &#160;mr bootstrap http://live-systems.org/other/mr/mrconfig
This command will automatically clone and checkout to the debian-next branch the development repositories of the Debian packages produced by the project. These include, among others, the live-images repository, which contains the configurations used for the prebuilt images that the project publishes for general use. For more information on how to use this repository, see Clone a configuration published via Git 821 Exemplos 822 Exemplos 823 18. Examples 824 This chapter covers example builds for specific use cases with live systems. If you are new to building your own live system images, we recommend you first look at the three tutorials in sequence, as each one teaches new techniques that will help you use and understand the remaining examples. 825 18.1 Using the examples 826 To use these examples you need a system to build them on that meets the requirements listed in Requirements and has live-build installed as described in Installing live-build. 827 Note that, for the sake of brevity, in these examples we do not specify a local mirror to use for the build. You can speed up downloads considerably if you use a local mirror. You may specify the options when you use lb config, as described in Distribution mirrors used at build time, or for more convenience, set the default for your build system in /etc/live/build.conf. Simply create this file and in it, set the corresponding LB_MIRROR_* variables to your preferred mirror. All other mirrors used in the build will be defaulted from these values. For example: 828 829 LB_MIRROR_BOOTSTRAP="http://mirror/debian/"
   LB_MIRROR_CHROOT_SECURITY="http://mirror/debian-security/"
   LB_MIRROR_CHROOT_BACKPORTS="http://mirror/debian-backports/"
18.2 Tutorial 1: A default image 830 Use case: Create a simple first image, learning the basics of live-build. 831 In this tutorial, we will build a default ISO hybrid live system image containing only base packages (no Xorg) and some live system support packages, as a first exercise in using live-build. 832 You can't get much simpler than this: 833 834 $ mkdir tutorial1 ; cd tutorial1 ; lb config
Examine the contents of the config/ directory if you wish. You will see stored here a skeletal configuration, ready to customize or, in this case, use immediately to build a default image. 835 Now, as superuser, build the image, saving a log as you build with tee. 836 837 # lb build 2>&1 | tee build.log
Assuming all goes well, after a while, the current directory will contain live-image-i386.hybrid.iso. This ISO hybrid image can be booted directly in a virtual machine as described in Testing an ISO image with Qemu and Testing an ISO image with VirtualBox, or else imaged onto optical media or a USB flash device as described in Burning an ISO image to a physical medium and Copying an ISO hybrid image to a USB stick, respectively. 838 18.3 Tutorial 2: A web browser utility 839 Use case: Create a web browser utility image, learning how to apply customizations. 840 In this tutorial, we will create an image suitable for use as a web browser utility, serving as an introduction to customizing live system images. 841 842 $ mkdir tutorial2
   $ cd tutorial2
   $ lb config
   $ echo "task-lxde-desktop iceweasel" > > config/package-lists/my.list.chroot
Our choice of LXDE for this example reflects our desire to provide a minimal desktop environment, since the focus of the image is the single use we have in mind, the web browser. We could go even further and provide a default configuration for the web browser in config/includes.chroot/etc/iceweasel/profile/, or additional support packages for viewing various kinds of web content, but we leave this as an exercise for the reader. 843 Build the image, again as superuser, keeping a log as in Tutorial 1: 844 845 # lb build 2>&1 | tee build.log
Again, verify the image is OK and test, as in Tutorial 1. 846 18.4 Tutorial 3: A personalized image 847 Use case: Create a project to build a personalized image, containing your favourite software to take with you on a USB stick wherever you go, and evolving in successive revisions as your needs and preferences change. 848 Since we will be changing our personalized image over a number of revisions, and we want to track those changes, trying things experimentally and possibly reverting them if things don't work out, we will keep our configuration in the popular git version control system. We will also use the best practice of autoconfiguration via auto scripts as described in Managing a configuration. 849 18.4.1 First revision 850 851 $ mkdir -p tutorial3/auto
   $ cp /usr/share/doc/live-build/examples/auto/* tutorial3/auto/
   $ cd tutorial3
Edit auto/config to read as follows: 852 853 #!/bin/sh
&lt;br />   lb config noauto \
    &#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;--architectures i386 \
    &#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;--linux-flavours 686-pae \
    &#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;"${@}"
Perform lb config to generate the config tree, using the auto/config script you just created: 854 855 $ lb config
Now populate your local package list: 856 857 $ echo "task-lxde-desktop iceweasel xchat" > > config/package-lists/my.list.chroot
First, --architectures i386 ensures that on our amd64 build system, we build a 32-bit version suitable for use on most machines. Second, we use --linux-flavours 686-pae because we don't anticipate using this image on much older systems. Third, we have chosen the lxde task metapackage to give us a minimal desktop. And finally, we have added two initial favourite packages: iceweasel and xchat. 858 Now, build the image: 859 860 # lb build
Note that unlike in the first two tutorials, we no longer have to type 2>&1 | tee build.log as that is now included in auto/build. 861 Once you've tested the image (as in Tutorial 1) and are satisfied it works, it's time to initialize our git repository, adding only the auto scripts we just created, and then make the first commit: 862 863 $ git init
   $ cp /usr/share/doc/live-build/examples/gitignore .gitignore
   $ git add .
   $ git commit -m "Initial import."
18.4.2 Second revision 864 In this revision, we're going to clean up from the first build, add the vlc package to our configuration, rebuild, test and commit. 865 The lb clean command will clean up all generated files from the previous build except for the cache, which saves having to re-download packages. This ensures that the subsequent lb build will re-run all stages to regenerate the files from our new configuration. 866 867 # lb clean
Now append the vlc package to our local package list in config/package-lists/my.list.chroot: 868 869 $ echo vlc > > config/package-lists/my.list.chroot
Build again: 870 871 # lb build
Test, and when you're satisfied, commit the next revision: 872 873 $ git commit -a -m "Adding vlc media player."
Of course, more complicated changes to the configuration are possible, perhaps adding files in subdirectories of config/. When you commit new revisions, just take care not to hand edit or commit the top-level files in config containing LB_* variables, as these are build products, too, and are always cleaned up by lb clean and re-created with lb config via their respective auto scripts. 874 We've come to the end of our tutorial series. While many more kinds of customization are possible, even just using the few features explored in these simple examples, an almost infinite variety of different images can be created. The remaining examples in this section cover several other use cases drawn from the collected experiences of users of live systems. 875 18.5 A VNC Kiosk Client 876 Use case: Create an image with live-build to boot directly to a VNC server. 877 Make a build directory and create an skeletal configuration inside it, disabling recommends to make a minimal system. And then create two initial package lists: the first one generated with a script provided by live-build named Packages (see Generated package lists), and the second one including xorg, gdm3, metacity and xvnc4viewer. 878 879 $ mkdir vnc-kiosk-client
   $ cd vnc-kiosk-client
   $ lb config -a i386 -k 686-pae --apt-recommends false
   $ echo '! Packages Priority standard' > config/package-lists/standard.list.chroot
   $ echo "xorg gdm3 metacity xvnc4viewer" > config/package-lists/my.list.chroot
As explained in Tweaking APT to save space you may need to re-add some recommended packages to make your image work properly. 880 An easy way to list recommends is using apt-cache. For example: 881 882 $ apt-cache depends live-config live-boot
In this example we found out that we had to re-include several packages recommended by live-config and live-boot: user-setup to make autologin work and sudo as an essential program to shutdown the system. Besides, it could be handy to add live-tools to be able to copy the image to RAM and eject to eventually eject the live medium. So: 883 884 $ echo "live-tools user-setup sudo eject" > config/package-lists/recommends.list.chroot
After that, create the directory /etc/skel in config/includes.chroot and put a custom .xsession in it for the default user that will launch metacity and start xvncviewer, connecting to port 5901 on a server at 192.168.1.2: 885 886 $ mkdir -p config/includes.chroot/etc/skel
   $ cat > config/includes.chroot/etc/skel/.xsession < < EOF
   #!/bin/sh
&lt;br />   /usr/bin/metacity &&lt;br />   /usr/bin/xvncviewer 192.168.1.2:1
&lt;br />   exit
   EOF
Build the image: 887 888 # lb build
Enjoy. 889 18.6 A base image for a 128MB USB key 890 Use case: Create a default image with some components removed in order to fit on a 128MB USB key with a little space left over to use as you see fit. 891 When optimizing an image to fit a certain media size, you need to understand the tradeoffs you are making between size and functionality. In this example, we trim only so much as to make room for additional material within a 128MB media size, but without doing anything to destroy the integrity of the packages contained within, such as the purging of locale data via the localepurge package, or other such "intrusive" optimizations. Of particular note, we use --debootstrap-options to create a minimal system from scratch. 892 893 $ lb config --apt-indices false --apt-recommends false --debootstrap-options "--variant=minbase" --firmware-chroot false --memtest none
To make the image work properly, we must re-add, at least, two recommended packages which are left out by the --apt-recommends false option. See Tweaking APT to save space 894 895 $ echo "user-setup sudo" > config/package-lists/recommends.list.chroot
Now, build the image in the usual way: 896 897 # lb build 2>&1 | tee build.log
On the author's system at the time of writing this, the above configuration produced a 110MB image. This compares favourably with the 192MB image produced by the default configuration in Tutorial 1. 898 Leaving off APT's indices with --apt-indices false saves a fair amount of space, the tradeoff being that you need to do an apt-get update before using apt in the live system. Dropping recommended packages with --apt-recommends false saves some additional space, at the expense of omitting some packages you might otherwise expect to be there. --debootstrap-options "--variant=minbase" bootstraps a minimal system from the start. Not automatically including firmware packages with --firmware-chroot false saves some space too. And finally, --memtest none prevents the installation of a memory tester. 899 Note: A minimal system can also be achieved using hooks, like for example the stripped.hook.chroot hook found in /usr/share/doc/live-build/examples/hooks. It may shave off additional small amounts of space and produce an image of 91MB. However, it does so by removal of documentation and other files from packages installed on the system. This violates the integrity of those packages and that, as the comment header warns, may have unforeseen consequences. That is why using a minimal debootstrap is the recommended way of achieving this goal. 900 18.7 A localized GNOME desktop and installer 901 Use case: Create a GNOME desktop image, localized for Switzerland and including an installer. 902 We want to make an iso-hybrid image for i386 architecture using our preferred desktop, in this case GNOME, containing all of the same packages that would be installed by the standard Debian installer for GNOME. 903 Our initial problem is the discovery of the names of the appropriate language tasks. Currently, live-build cannot help with this. While we might get lucky and find this by trial-and-error, there is a tool, grep-dctrl, which can be used to dig it out of the task descriptions in tasksel-data, so to prepare, make sure you have both of those things: 904 905 # apt-get install dctrl-tools tasksel-data
Now we can search for the appropriate tasks, first with: 906 907 $ grep-dctrl -FTest-lang de /usr/share/tasksel/descs/debian-tasks.desc -sTask
   Task: german
By this command, we discover the task is called, plainly enough, german. Now to find the related tasks: 908 909 $ grep-dctrl -FEnhances german /usr/share/tasksel/descs/debian-tasks.desc -sTask
   Task: german-desktop
   Task: german-kde-desktop
At boot time we will generate the de_CH.UTF-8 locale and select the ch keyboard layout. Now let's put the pieces together. Recalling from Using metapackages that task metapackages are prefixed task-, we just specify these language boot parameters, then add standard priority packages and all our discovered task metapackages to our package list as follows: 910 911 $ mkdir live-gnome-ch
   $ cd live-gnome-ch
   $ lb config \
    &#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;-a i386 \
    &#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;--bootappend-live "boot=live components locales=de_CH.UTF-8 keyboard-layouts=ch" \
    &#160;&#160;&#160;&#160;--debian-installer live
   $ echo '! Packages Priority standard' > config/package-lists/standard.list.chroot
   $ echo task-gnome-desktop task-german task-german-desktop > > config/package-lists/desktop.list.chroot
   $ echo debian-installer-launcher > > config/package-lists/installer.list.chroot
Note that we have included the debian-installer-launcher package to launch the installer from the live desktop. The 586 kernel flavour, which is currently necessary for the launcher to work properly, will be included by default. 912 Apendice 913 Style guide 914 19. Style guide 915 19.1 Guidelines for authors 916 This section deals with some general considerations to be taken into account when writing technical documentation for live-manual. They are divided into linguistic features and recommended procedures. 917 Note: Authors should first read Contributing to this document 918 19.1.1 Linguistic features 919 Use plain English 920 Keep in mind that a high percentage of your readers are not native speakers of English. So as a general rule try to use short, meaningful sentences, followed by a full stop. 921 This does not mean that you have to use a simplistic, naive style. It is a suggestion to try to avoid, as much as possible, complex subordinate sentences that make the text difficult to understand for non-native speakers of English. 922 Variety of English 923 The most widely spread varieties of English are British and American so it is very likely that most authors will use either one or the other. In a collaborative environment, the ideal variety would be "International English" but it is very difficult, not to say impossible, to decide on which variety among all the existing ones, is the best to use. 924 We expect that different varieties may mix without creating misunderstandings but in general terms you should try to be coherent and before deciding on using British, American or any other English flavour at your discretion, please take a look at how other people write and try to imitate them. 925 Be balanced 926 Do not be biased. Avoid including references to ideologies completely unrelated to live-manual. Technical writing should be as neutral as possible. It is in the very nature of scientific writing. 927 Be politically correct 928 Try to avoid sexist language as much as possible. If you need to make references to the third person singular preferably use "they" rather than "he" or "she" or awkward inventions such as "s/he", "s(he)" and the like. 929 Be concise 930 Go straight to the point and do not wander around aimlessly. Give as much information as necessary but do not give more information than necessary, this is to say, do not explain unnecessary details. Your readers are intelligent. Presume some previous knowledge on their part. 931 Minimize translation work 932 Keep in mind that whatever you write will have to be translated into several other languages. This implies that a number of people will have to do an extra work if you add useless or redundant information. 933 Be coherent 934 As suggested before, it is almost impossible to standardize a collaborative document into a perfectly unified whole. However, every effort on your side to write in a coherent way with the rest of the authors will be appreciated. 935 Be cohesive 936 Use as many text-forming devices as necessary to make your text cohesive and unambiguous. (Text-forming devices are linguistic markers such as connectors). 937 Be descriptive 938 It is preferable to describe the point in one or several paragraphs than merely using a number of sentences in a typical "changelog" style. Describe it! Your readers will appreciate it. 939 Dictionary 940 Look up the meaning of words in a dictionary or encyclopedia if you do not know how to express certain concepts in English. But keep in mind that a dictionary can either be your best friend or can turn into your worst enemy if you do not know how to use it correctly. 941 English has the largest vocabulary that exists (with over one million words). Many of these words are borrowings from other languages. When looking up the meaning of words in a bilingual dictionary the tendency of a non-native speaker of English is to choose the one that sounds more similar in their mother tongue. This often turns into an excessively formal discourse which does not sound quite natural in English. 942 As a general rule, if a concept can be expressed using different synonyms, it is a good advice to choose the first word proposed by the dictionary. If in doubt, choosing words of Germanic origin (Usually monosyllabic words) is often the right thing to do. Be warned that these two techniques might produce a rather informal discourse but at least your choice of words will be of wide use and generally accepted. 943 Using a dictionary of collocations is recommended. They are extremely helpful when it comes to know which words usually occur together. 944 Again it is a good practice to learn from the work of others. Using a search engine to check how other authors use certain expressions may help a lot. 945 False friends, idioms and other idiomatic expressions 946 Watch out for false friends. No matter how proficient you are in a foreign language you cannot help falling from time to time in the trap of the so called "false friends", words that look similar in two languages but whose meanings or uses might be completely different. 947 Try to avoid idioms as much as possible. "Idioms" are expressions that may convey a completely different meaning from what their individual words seem to mean. Sometimes, idioms might be difficult to understand even for native speakers of English! 948 Avoid slang, abbreviations, contractions... 949 Even though you are encouraged to use plain, everyday English, technical writing belongs to the formal register of the language. 950 Try to avoid slang, unusual abbreviations that are difficult to understand and above all contractions that try to imitate the spoken language. Not to mention typical irc and family friendly expressions. 951 19.1.2 Procedures 952 Test before write 953 It is important that authors test their examples before adding them to live-manual to ensure that everything works as described. Testing on a clean chroot or VM can be a good starting point. Besides, it would be ideal if the tests were then carried out on different machines with different hardware to spot possible problems that may arise. 954 Examples 955 When providing an example try to be as specific as you can. An example is, after all, just an example. 956 It is often better to use a line that only applies to a specific case than using abstractions that may confuse your readers. In this case you can provide a brief explanation of the effects of the proposed example. 957 There may be some exceptions when the example suggests using some potentially dangerous commands that, if misused, may cause data loss or other similar undesirable effects. In this case you should provide a thorough explanation of the possible side effects. 958 External links 959 Links to external sites should only be used when the information on those sites is crucial when it comes to understanding a special point. Even so, try to use links to external sites as sparsely as possible. Internet links are likely to change from time to time resulting in broken links and leaving your arguments in an incomplete state. 960 Besides, people who read the manual offline will not have the chance to follow those links. 961 Avoid branding and things that violate the license under which the manual is published 962 Try to avoid branding as much as possible. Keep in mind that other downstream projects might make use of the documentation you write. So you are complicating things for them if you add certain specific material. 963 live-manual is licensed under the GNU GPL. This has a number of implications that apply to the distribution of the material (of any kind, including copyrighted graphics or logos) that is published with it. 964 Write a first draft, revise, edit, improve, redo if necessary 965 - Brainstorm!. You need to organize your ideas first in a logical sequence of events. 966 - Once you have somehow organized those ideas in your mind write a first draft. 967 - Revise grammar, syntax and spelling. Keep in mind that the proper names of the releases, such as buster or sid, should not be capitalized when referred to as code names. In order to check the spelling you can run the "spell" target. i.e. make spell 968 - Improve your statements and redo any part if necessary. 969 Chapters 970 Use the conventional numbering system for chapters and subtitles. e.g. 1, 1.1, 1.1.1, 1.1.2 ... 1.2, 1.2.1, 1.2.2 ... 2, 2.1 ... and so on. See markup below. 971 If you have to enumerate a series of steps or stages in your description, you can also use ordinal numbers: First, second, third ... or First, Then, After that, Finally ... Alternatively you can use bulleted items. 972 Markup 973 And last but not least, live-manual uses SiSU to process the text files and produce a multiple format output. It is recommended to take a look at SiSU's manual to get familiar with its markup, or else type: 974 975 $ sisu --help markup
Here are some markup examples that may prove useful: 976 - For emphasis/bold text: 977 978 *{foo}* or !{foo}!
produces: foo or foo. Use it to emphasize certain key words. 979 - For italics: 980 981 /{foo}/
produces: foo. Use them e.g. for the names of Debian packages. 982 - For monospace: 983 984 #{foo}#
produces: foo. Use it e.g. for the names of commands. And also to highlight some key words or things like paths. 985 - For code blocks: 986 987 code{
&lt;br />    &#160;$ foo
    &#160;# bar
&lt;br />   }code
produces: 988 989 $ foo
   # bar
Use code{ to open and }code to close the tags. It is important to remember to leave a space at the beginning of each line of code. 990 19.2 Guidelines for translators 991 This section deals with some general considerations to be taken into account when translating the contents of live-manual. 992 As a general recommendation, translators should have read and understood the translation rules that apply to their specific languages. Usually, translation groups and mailing lists provide information on how to produce translated work that complies with Debian quality standards. 993 Note: Translators should also read Contributing to this document. In particular the section Translation 994 19.2.1 Translation hints 995 Comments 996 The role of the translator is to convey as faithfully as possible the meaning of words, sentences, paragraphs and texts as written by the original authors into their target language. 997 So they should refrain from adding personal comments or extra bits of information of their own. If they want to add a comment for other translators working on the same documents, they can leave it in the space reserved for that. That is, the header of the strings in the po files preceded by a number sign #. Most graphical translation programs can automatically handle those types of comments. 998 TN, Translator's Note 999 It is perfectly acceptable however, to include a word or an expression in brackets in the translated text if, and only if, that makes the meaning of a difficult word or expression clearer to the reader. Inside the brackets the translator should make evident that the addition was theirs using the abbreviation "TN" or "Translator's Note". 1000 Impersonal sentences 1001 Documents written in English make an extensive use of the impersonal form "you". In some other languages that do not share this characteristic, this might give the false impression that the original texts are directly addressing the reader when they are actually not doing so. Translators must be aware of that fact and reflect it in their language as accurately as possible. 1002 False friends 1003 The trap of "false friends" explained before especially applies to translators. Double check the meaning of suspicious false friends if in doubt. 1004 Markup 1005 Translators working initially with pot files and later on with po files will find many markup features in the strings. They can translate the text anyway, as long as it is translatable, but it is extremely important that they use exactly the same markup as the original English version. 1006 Code blocks 1007 Even though the code blocks are usually untranslatable, including them in the translation is the only way to score a 100% complete translation. And even though it means more work at first because it might require the intervention of the translators if the code changes, it is the best way, in the long run, to identify what has already been translated and what has not when checking the integrity of the .po files. 1008 Newlines 1009 The translated texts need to have the exact same newlines as the original texts. Be careful to press the "Enter" key or type \n if they appear in the original files. These newlines often appear, for instance, in the code blocks. 1010 Make no mistake, this does not mean that the translated text needs to have the same length as the English version. That is nearly impossible. 1011 Untranslatable strings 1012 Translators should never translate: 1013 - The code names of releases (which should be written in lowercase) 1014 - The names of programs 1015 - The commands given as examples 1016 - Metadata (often between colons :metadata:) 1017 - Links 1018 - Paths 1019